Eligible homeowners are reimbursed for reducing stormwater runoff.

The Long Island Garden Rewards Program offers reimbursement of up to $500 total for making your yard more water friendly. Capturing rainwater and keeping it on your lawn with rain barrels and rain gardens, or by slowing down water runoff with native plant gardens, reduces the amount of water flowing across your yard. These actions reduce the amount of nitrogen pollution entering local waterways and help conserve water.

To find out if you are eligible for this program please enter your address into the map at the bottom of the Long Island Regional Planning Council (LIRPC) webpage.

About Nitrogen Pollution

Nitrogen is the leading cause of water quality deterioration on Long Island. Excess nitrogen can cause toxic algal blooms that lead to low oxygen conditions, fish kills, and degraded wetlands and marine habitats. Nitrogen also contaminates the groundwater, which is the sole source of Long Island’s drinking water. The Garden Rewards Program addresses nitrogen pollution by offering Long Island residents an incentive to create and install yard features that retain stormwater.

Rain Barrels

Rain barrels collect and store rainwater from your roof that would otherwise be lost to runoff. They provide water for later use on lawns and gardens and are a way to conserve water.

Reward Details

This program covers the cost of a rain barrel and mosquito netting/screens up to $125 per barrel with a total cap of $500. Materials must be purchased after March 15, 2024.

This program does not cover the cost of installation and stands. 

Rain Barrel Requirements

  • The minimum rain barrel size is 50 gallons.
  • This program requires the placement and maintenance of a rain barrel for a minimum of 3 years on your property.
  • Proper rain barrel maintenance includes:
    • Mosquito netting is required, but can be any type of screen that would deter mosquitos.
    • Dumping the water or turning the rain barrel upside down before winter to prevent freezing.

Resources:

Rain Gardens

Rain gardens collect rainwater from roofs, driveways, or streets and allows it to soak into the ground, therefore reducing runoff. They can also mitigate flooding and enhance your yard with low-maintenance landscaping.

Reward Details

Up to $500 is reimbursed for the purchase of native plants and necessary materials to construct a rain garden. Native plants are those listed below, and materials covered include mulch, gravel, and soil amendments. Materials must be purchased after March 15, 2024. For questions about eligible native plants please contact Livia Graham (lgraham@neiwpcc.org).

This program does not include non-native plants, biennials, or annuals, and will not reimburse for equipment needed to install a rain garden (e.g., shovels, wheelbarrows, etc.).

Rain Garden Requirements

  • Native plants to Long Island must be used (see list below).
  • Rain garden must be at least 20 square feet in size.
  • Rain garden needs to be maintained for a minimum of 3 years 

Resources:

How to properly construct a rain garden:

Eligible plant list (the program will only cover plants listed in the resources below!)

Native Plantings

While native plants do not necessarily collect runoff, they promote healthy ecosystems. Native plant gardens can reduce water usage, reduce fertilizer and pesticide usage, and promote biodiversity.

Reward Details

This program covers up to $500 for the purchase of native plants. Eligible native plants are listed below. Materials must be purchased after March 15, 2024. For questions about eligible native plants, please contact Livia Graham (lgraham@neiwpcc.org).

This program does not cover non-native plants, biennials, or annuals. 

Native Plantings Requirements

  • Native plants to Long Island must be used (see list below) on your property.
  • Native gardens and plants must be maintained for a minimum of 3 years.  

Eligible plant list (the program will only cover plants listed in the resources below!)

Related Resources

Long Island Native Plant List

This list was generated from the New York Flora Atlas, generated 2.27.23.

Common Name Scientific Name Habitat Growth Habit
Alga pondweed Potamogeton confervoides Forb/herb
Allegheny monkey flower Mimulus ringens Marshes, wet thickets, ditches, edges of streams, pond and lake margins, and gravel and sand bars in streams. Predominately in non-shaded habitats. Forb/herb
Alternate-leaved seed-box Ludwigia alternifolia Forb/herb
Ambiguous sedge Carex amphibola Rich to somewhat poorer mesic forests and forested slopes. Mostly higher up on slopes than the related C. grisea but sometimes in floodplains of small creeks. Graminoid
Ambiguous spike rush Eleocharis ambigens Graminoid
American alumroot Heuchera americana var. americana Rock outcrops in hardwood forests, hardwood forests of a southern affinity, and forest openings. Generally associated with rock outcrops but sometimes found simply in forested situations. A species of the warmer and more southern parts of New York. Herbaceous
American basswood Tilia americana var. americana Rich mesic forests, talus slopes, bases of rock outcrops, bluffs, and thin soil over calcareous bedrock. Although occurring throughout New York’s mesic hardwood forests excepting the cooler parts of the state this species is most abundant in deep rich mesic soils of valley bottoms and lower slopes as well as on talus slopes and in association with rocky outcrops. Tree
American beech Fagus grandifolia Mesic forests. A major component of northern hardwood forests where it is often in association with sugar maples. Beech occurs from sea level in coastal Long Island to high elevation forests in the mountains of northern New York. Tree
American bittersweet Celastrus scandens Edges of forests and thickets, young forests, and eroding stream banks. Perhaps becoming less common as the non-native aggressive C. orbiculata becomes more common. Vine
American brooklime Veronica americana Ditches, stream edges, wet thickets, swamps, and gravel and sand bars in streams. Forb/herb
American bugleweed, American water horehound Lycopus americanus Marshes, swamps, and edges of ponds and streams. Common in a large variety of wetlands. Forb/herb
American bur-reed Sparganium americanum Edges of lakes, ponds, and slow moving streams; channels in swamps, marshes, and rich fens; and marshes. This species generally occurs in shallow water on mucky soils. Forb/herb
American chestnut Castanea dentata Dry to mesic forests often associated with Quercus spp. The introduced chestnut blight kills the trees and mature trees are now rather scattered and rare. Still, stump sprouts and small trees are not uncommon although they soon become infested with the blight. Tree
American common juniper, ground juniper Juniperus communis var. depressa Rocky summits, dry woodlands and forests, edges of forests, and bluffs. Tree, Shrub
American dittany Cunila origanoides Dry to dry-mesic hardwood forested slopes often with Carya spp. Often not in the most acidic sites and not with Quercus montana and ericaceous shrubs dominant. The adjacent herb layer is usually somewhat sparse but diverse. Populations are often relatively small. Mostly restricted to southeastern New York. Subshrub, Shrub
American dog violet Viola labradorica Mesic forests, forest edges, wet forests, and high terraces of floodplains of small streams. Herbaceous
American elm Ulmus americana Wet thickets, stream edges, swamps, roadsides, mesic to wet forests, and forest edges. In wet to mesic often nutrient rich soils. Still a rather common tree even after the introduction of Dutch Elm Disease although perhaps not as significant of a component of bottom land and wet-mesic forests and not growing as large as in the past. Tree
American germander Teucrium canadense Floodplain forests, alluvial thickets, edges of streams, and sand and gravel bars in streams. Sometimes somewhat weedy. Forb/herb
American golden dock Rumex fueginus Herbaceous
American hazelnut Corylus americana Edges of swamps, alluvial thickets, and weedy thickets. Shrub
American holly Ilex opaca var. opaca Mostly coastal (or near coastal) in NYS. Occurring in sandy understories of forests but also in clearings and openings. Tree, Shrub
American manna grass Glyceria grandis var. grandis Marshes, openings in swamps, and wet thickets. In saturated to slightly inundated soils. Graminoid
American marsh pennywort Hydrocotyle americana Marshes, swamps, stream banks, and wet ditches usually where the herbaceous vegetation is not dense or tall. This species likes exposed saturated or wet soils. It also does well over mosses in wet areas. Forb/herb
American plum Prunus americana Hedgerows, thickets, forest edges, young successional forests, and disturbed soils often in valley bottoms and floodplains. Tree, Shrub
American red raspberry Rubus idaeus ssp. strigosus Logged forests, forest openings, tip-up mounds at bases of fallen trees, roadsides, disturbed sites, talus slopes, and rocky openings. Very common and widespread in the cooler parts of New York and less widespread and more of a habitat specialist in the warmer parts of the state. Shrub
American saltmarsh bulrush Bolboschoenus maritimus ssp. paludosus Coastal and inland salt marshes, edges of inland salt ponds, and swales and ditches with saline or brackish water. In non-tidal situations it often grows in standing water, at least seasonally, up to 1-2 meters deep. Herbaceous
American sea rocket Cakile edentula var. edentula Maritime sandy areas mostly on beaches in or just above the wrack line. Forb/herb
American spearwort, American crowfoot Ranunculus ambigens Forb/herb
American stinging nettle Urtica gracilis ssp. gracilis High and low forested floodplain terraces, floodplain thickets, and gravel and sand bars in streams. Forb/herb
American strawberry bush Euonymus americanus Mesic forests including rich sites. Shrub
American sweetflag Acorus americanus Forb/herb
American vetch Vicia americana var. americana Edges of forests, woodlands, bluffs, thickets, and roadsides. In dry to mesic soils. Vine, Forb/herb
American water smartweed Persicaria amphibia ssp. laevimarginata Rooted, floating leaved aquatic in ponds, lake edges, and marshes; it also occurs as an emergent in shallow water at edges of lakes, ponds, and slow moving streams; and grows as a terrestrial herb in saturated soils (at least seasonally) of pond and lake edges as well as marshes. Forb/herb
American wild mint Mentha canadensis Marshes, wet thickets, and stream banks. Often grows in somewhat weedy thickets. Forb/herb
American woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca ssp. americana Young successional forests, thickets, forest edges, edges of dirt roads and paths through forests, and disturbed soils. Particularly abundant over calcareous bedrock. Forb/herb
Andrew’s bottle gentian Gentiana andrewsii var. andrewsii Forb/herb
aniseroot, long-styled sweet cicely Osmorhiza longistylis Rich forests, bottomlands, trail edges, and occasionally shaded not highly disturbed roadsides. . This species often occurs in deep or calcareous soils but it can also be found in more acidic sites. Herbaceous
Appalachian cherry Prunus susquehanae Rocky summits, exposed rocky ridges, rock outcrops, bluffs, and ledges. Also rarely occurs in open fields with thin seasonally saturated and seasonally dry soils. Shrub
Appalachian rock polypody, Appalachian polypody Polypodium appalachianum Rims of cliffs, ledges, tops of boulders in forests, and talus slopes on thin mesic soil over rocks. Distinctions in habitat preferences between this and the very closely related P. virginianum as well as the hybrid between the two (P. x incognitum) have not been detected. Forb/herb
Appressed-leaved bog clubmoss, swamp bog clubmoss Lycopodiella appressa Subshrub, Shrub
Arrow feather threeawn Aristida purpurascens var. purpurascens Graminoid
Arrow-leaved tearthumb Persicaria sagittata Marshes, swamps, wet thickets, ditches, and wet disturbed sites. Herbaceous
Arrow-leaved violet Viola sagittata var. sagittata Forb/herb
Ashe’s rosette grass Dichanthelium commutatum ssp. ashei Graminoid
Atlantic blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium Shrub
Atlantic blue-eyed grass Sisyrinchium atlanticum Fields and thickets in sandy soils. Herbaceous
Atlantic ladies’ tresses Spiranthes bightensis Herbaceous Monocot
Atlantic white cedar Chamaecyparis thyoides Acidic swamps mostly restricted to the coast but also occurring in a few inland sites. Often forms dense monospecific stands. Tree
Autumn bent Agrostis perennans Mesic forests sometimes on edges of forested streams. Graminoid
Autumn coralroot Corallorhiza odontorhiza var. odontorhiza Mesic hardwood forests. Forb/herb
Autumn water starwort Callitriche hermaphroditica Forb/herb
Autumn willow Salix serissima Rich herb or shrub dominated fens and calcareous swamps. Tree, Shrub
Awl-fruited sedge Carex stipata var. stipata Very common in wet forests, marshes, edges of ponds, and open wet habitats. Graminoid
Awl-leaved arrowhead Sagittaria subulata Occurs in tidal mud flats both brackish and fresh. Like S. montevidensis ssp. spongiosa which this species occurs with it can form large stands and is fully submerged during high tide. Forb/herb
Backward-fruited sedge Carex retrorsa Marshes; edges of streams, rivers, and ponds; openings in swamps; and swales. Perhaps most common in open marsh habitat which is at least seasonally inundated. Graminoid
Bailey’s sedge Carex baileyi Forested seeps, roadside ditches, marshes, and edges of streams and ponds. Less common than the similar C. lurida and more restricted to acidic soils. Carex baileyi is somewhat local in distribution. Graminoid
Balm-of-Gilead Populus balsamifera Tree
Balsam poplar Populus balsamifera Successional forests of a northern affinity, roadsides, clearings, and forest openings. In the cooler and more northern parts of New York. Tree
Baltic rush Juncus balticus ssp. littoralis Fresh and saline marshes, and wet or wet-mesic ditches and thickets. Graminoid
Barber-pole bulrush Scirpus microcarpus Marshes, open swamps, wet logging roads, and wet ditches. In high to low pH sites including rich Thuja occidentalis swamps. Graminoid
Barratt’s sedge Carex barrattii Graminoid
Barren strawberry Geum fragarioides Hardwood forests (often of a southern affinity) and forest edges in mesic to dry-mesic predominately thin soils. Forb/herb
Bastard toad flax Comandra umbellata ssp. umbellata Thin canopied oak forests, woodlands, and forest edges; utility rights-of-way, pine barrens, successional fields, and thickets. Generally in dry thin soils in open to partly shaded habitat but sometimes in wetter habitats. Herbaceous
Bayard’s adder’s mouth Malaxis bayardii In fire maintained systems, particularly under pitch pine or within rocky chestnut oak forest. Forb/herb
Bayberry Morella caroliniensis This species is found in a few, apparently very different, habitat types including upland maritime habitats, dunes, rich open to forested fens, and open habitats in sandy or thin acidic soils. Shrub
Bayonet rush Juncus militaris Emergent from edges of lakes and ponds in acidic sandy or coarse soils. Graminoid
Beach grass Calamagrostis breviligulata Maritime dunes and also planted and naturalizing along the shores of Lake Ontario. Graminoid
Beach heather Hudsonia tomentosa Coastal dunes. Subshrub, Shrub
Beach pea Lathyrus japonicus var. maritimus Maritime areas on cobbles or sand. Usually close to the shore but above the high tide line. Vine, Forb/herb
Beach pinweed Lechea maritima var. maritima Maritime dunes. Herbaceous
Beach plum Prunus maritima Maritime dunes and forest openings and thickets in sandy soil along the coast. Shrub
Beach sedge Carex silicea Gravel and sand pits, maritime dunes, and rocky maritime areas. It grows adjacent or relatively close to the ocean in open habitats with dry to dry-mesic sandy, rocky, or coarse grained soils. Graminoid
Beaked hawkweed Hieracium gronovii Forb/herb
Beaked panic grass Coleataenia anceps ssp. anceps Graminoid
Bearberry Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Rocky summits, bluffs, sandy maritime areas, and fields and roadsides with thin sandy soils. Mostly a plant of acidic soils in open sites. Subshrub, Shrub
Bearded sprangletop Diplachne fusca ssp. fascicularis Graminoid
Bebb’s sedge Carex bebbii Fens, marshes, ditches, edges of swamps, and edges of ponds. Predominately in calcareous soils in open habitats with saturated or inundated soils. Graminoid
Bebb’s willow Salix bebbiana Swamps, rich fens, wet thickets, wet successional fields, roadsides, ditches, marshes, vernal pools, and edges of lakes and streams. Tree, Shrub
Berchtold’s pondweed Potamogeton berchtoldii Shallow water of ponds, lakes, and slow moving streams. Forb/herb
Bicknell’s rosette grass Dichanthelium bicknellii
Bicknell’s sedge Carex bicknellii Rocky summits, woodlands, thickets, pine forests, roadsides, and railroad rights-of-way. Grows in dry rocky or sandy soils mostly in open habitats. Usually in at least slightly richer soils than the closely related C. merritt-fernaldii. Graminoid
Big bluestem Andropogon gerardi Ice and river scour shores of medium to large sized rivers, dry open habitats including rocky summits, open hillsides in woodlands and forests, bluffs, sandy fields, and roadsides. It is sometimes planted on roadsides. Graminoid
Big cord grass Sporobolus cynosuroides Graminoid
Big-toothed aspen Populus grandidentata Successional forests, logged forests, burned forests, forest edges, openings in forests, successional fields, and roadsides. Tree
Billings’s sedge Carex billingsii On tops and edges of hummocks in open bogs. These hummocks often are dominated by dwarf shrubs and trees and are carpeted with Sphagnum spp. Graminoid
Bird’s foot violet Viola pedata var. pedata Forb/herb
Bitternut hickory Carya cordiformis Floodplain forests and wet-mesic to mesic hardwood forests often low on slopes. A tree primarily of bottomlands in well-drained to wet soils but also occurs less frequently and in smaller numbers in drier habitats on upper slopes and hilltops. Tree
Black ash Fraxinus nigra Swamps, rich wet forests, and edges of streams. Tree
Black birch Betula lenta A tree of young forests, rocky slopes, and talus slopes in mesic to dry soils. It is most common in warmer parts of NY and is an early successional species in mesic forests. Tree
black chokeberry Aronia melanocarpa Swamps, marshes, wet thickets, lakes edges, peatlands, rock outcrops, rocky summits, pine barrens, and sandy forests. Tree, Shrub
black cohosh, black snakeroot, bugbane Actaea racemosa Mesic to dry-mesic hardwood forests and forest edges, vegetated roadsides and paths often in calcareous soils. Forb/herb
black crowberry Empetrum nigrum Open rocky alpine habitats. Sometimes mixed with small dwarfed shrubs. Subshrub, Shrub
black grass Juncus gerardi Coastal and inland salt marshes, and becoming fairly common on edges of major roads where salt is applied. Graminoid
black huckleberry Gaylussacia baccata Dry-mesic to mesic acidic hardwood forests of a southern affinity, bluffs, woodlands, and rocky summits. Occasionally occurs in wet acidic peatlands. Often occurs high on slopes or on hilltops in association with Vaccinium spp. Shrub
black maple Acer nigrum Mostly restricted to calcareous or rich soils. Floodplain forests, rich mesic forests, and limestone forests. Tree
black oak Quercus velutina Dry to mesic forests. Prefers two main habitats: dry ridges and upper slopes sometimes with Q. coccinea; and deep slightly acidic often sandy mesic soils on mid to lower slopes. Tree
black raspberry Rubus occidentalis Successional and disturbed forests, floodplain forests, forest edges, openings in forests, thickets, stream banks, and roadsides. Shrub
black walnut Juglans nigra Cultivated and apparently native. Native Americans may have been responsible for bringing this tree to parts of New York. Floodplain forests, low and rich mesic hardwood forests, and successional forests. Also, often found in large patches near old home sites. Does best in deep alluvial soils where it can become a dominant tree. It is also somewhat weedy and once established sometimes creates monospecific stands. Tree
black willow Salix nigra Edges of rivers and streams, wet thickets, marshes, low and floodplain forests, and edges of lakes. Tree
black-edged sedge Carex nigromarginata Dry to dry-mesic forests, road banks, and paths through forests. Fairly rare in New York with populations small and isolated. They often occur as small patches in botanically uninteresting homogenous forests making searches somewhat laborious. In addition, identification is difficult after the perigynia, which are produced early in the season (May), shed. Graminoid
black-fruited spike rush Eleocharis melanocarpa Graminoid
blackgum, sourgum Nyssa sylvatica Swamps, wet depressions, wet woods, and borders of ponds and streams. Also in dry upland sites. Sometimes these upland sites are associated with seasonal springs or seeps. In the upland sites, populations are sometimes very small. Tree
blackhaw Viburnum prunifolium Dry-mesic forests, thickets, successional shrub thickets, and successional fields. Mostly in thin dry soils. Viburnum prunifolium is mostly restricted to southeastern NY. In some areas that occurs in NY it is probably not native. Shrub
blackjack oak Quercus marilandica var. marilandica Tree
black-seeded spear grass Piptochaetium avenaceum Dry-mesic thinly forested sites of a southern affinity. Graminoid
bladder sedge Carex intumescens Hardwood and coniferous-hardwood forests and thickets. Mostly in at least seasonally wet to sometimes just mesic soils but usually not in more perennially seepy habitats. Also mostly in habitats that have at least some canopy. Graminoid
bladdernut Staphylea trifolia Rocky forests, rock outcrops, thin soils on exposed calcareous bedrock, banks of forested streams, and mesic forests (particularly floodplain forests) and thickets. Prefers dry to mesic highly calcareous sites but when in rocky forested sites it may not be as strong of a calciphile. Tree, Shrub
bland sweet cicely Osmorhiza claytonii Rich mesic forests sometimes in thickets. This species is more common that O. longistylis in New York and is not as much of a calciphile. Herbaceous
bloodroot Sanguinaria canadensis Rich mesic to dry-mesic hardwood forests. In more acidic regions it often occurs in rocky sites. Forb/herb
blue flag Iris versicolor Swamps, shrub swamps, marshes, rich fens, and acidic bogs. Grows in a wide variety of wetland types. Forb/herb
blue ground cedar Diphasiastrum tristachyum Dry to mesic forests often on upper slopes and hilltops with sterile thin or sandy acidic soils. In similar habitats as D. digitatum and sometimes occurring together but it generally grows in drier thinner and more acidic soils. Subshrub, Shrub
blue-stemmed goldenrod, wreath goldenrod Solidago caesia var. caesia Forested slopes, forest edges, forested road banks, and shale talus in mesic to a little drier soils. Occurring almost entirely in shaded situations Solidago caesia can be quite abundant at a site although it usually does not occur in dense stands. Forb/herb
blunt broom sedge Carex tribuloides var. tribuloides Shrub swamps, wet thickets, wet depressions in forests, roadside ditches, edge of marshes, and very rarely dry-mesic forested slopes. Graminoid
blunt spike rush Eleocharis obtusa var. obtusa Edges of ponds, streams, fresh tidal rivers, and lakes. Also in various wet open habitats including on floating logs and disturbed wet soils. Herbaceous
blunt-leaved bedstraw Galium obtusum ssp. obtusum Forb/herb
blunt-leaved milkweed Asclepias amplexicaulis Forb/herb
blunt-leaved sandwort Moehringia lateriflora Mesic to low wet forests, wet to mesic thickets, edges of small intermittent drainages, and open peaty wet areas. Forb/herb
blunt-lobed woodsia, blunt-lobed cliff fern Woodsia obtusa ssp. obtusa Wet to seasonally seepy cliffs, ledges, and shale or fine talus slopes. Very occasionally in soil. Predominately on calcareous substrates, but not limited to these. Fern
bog aster Oclemena nemoralis Acidic bogs. Forb/herb
bog birch Betula pumila Rich fens and acidic bogs. It can grow in dense wet shrub thickets in the habitats mentioned but usually does not occur under a tree canopy. It is a rare plant and is restricted to these aforementioned unique habitats. Shrub
bog goldenrod Solidago uliginosa Open to partially forested wet peatlands from rich fens and swamps to more acidic “bogs”. Usually not in mineral soil swamps or marshes but restricted to the more unique peatland environments. Forb/herb
bog huckleberry Gaylussacia bigeloviana Primarily a species of wet acidic shrubby peatlands including bogs. Subshrub, Shrub
bog muhly Muhlenbergia uniflora Graminoid
bog yellow-eyed grass Xyris difformis var. difformis Forb/herb
boneset Eupatorium perfoliatum Marshes, ditches, and seepage areas. Almost always in wet soils. Forb/herb
Boott’s wood fern Dryopteris cristata × D. intermedia Fern
Bosc’s rosette grass Dichanthelium boscii Dry-mesic to mesic forests and woodlands often in somewhat deep although well drained soils. Generally in more mesic soils than the somewhat similar Dichanthelium latifolium. Sometimes forming large moderately dense populations. Graminoid
bottlebrush grass Elymus hystrix var. hystrix Rich mesic forests including floodplains and dry-mesic woodlands or thin forests with thin often calcareous soils. Graminoid
bottle-shaped sedge Carex utriculata Edges of creeks and ponds, marshes, fens, and openings in swamps. Occurs in rich calcareous to more acidic wet sites. Graminoid
box elder, ash-leaved maple Acer negundo var. negundo A weedy tree originally native and rare in south central New York now widespread having spread from cultivation. Floodplain forests, banks of rivers, weedy successional forests, disturbed areas, and urban areas. Tree
bracted yellow-eyed grass Xyris bracteicaulis Saturated peat in large coastal plain pond shore. Forb/herb
Brazilian watermeal Wolffia brasiliensis Quiet water of ponds, lakes, and marshes. Often growing in mixed populations with other Wolffia species. Forb/herb
bristle-leaved sedge Carex eburnea Characteristic of dry Thuja occidentalis bluffs over limestone where it forms a dense low carpet. Also occurs on bluffs of ravines on thin rich soils in hardwood forests and other thin soils over calcareous bedrock. Occasional on hummocks in rich swamps. Herbaceous
bristle-stalked sedge Carex leptalea Rich fens, hummocks in swamps, wet forests, edges of small streams, and seepage areas. Does particularly well in calcareous wetlands but also occurs in more neutral or acidic sites. Graminoid
bristly black currant Ribes lacustre Cool swamps, wet thickets, and wet cool hardwood-coniferous and coniferous forests. Most abundant and common in the cooler and more northern parts of New York. Shrub
bristly blackberry Rubus setosus Forest edges, thickets, fields, and roadsides. Shrub
bristly sarsaparilla Aralia hispida Open rocky summits and ridges, forest clearings, roadsides, and disturbed ground mostly on acidic soils and rocks. This species appears to respond well to disturbances including fire and logging. Subshrub
bristly sedge Carex comosa Marshes, edges of ponds and streams, openings in swamps, and acidic peaty wetlands. Often grows in at least seasonally inundated soils. A large coarse rough plant sometimes forming extensive patches in open marshes. Graminoid
bristly smartweed Persicaria setacea Herbaceous
Britton’s bush clover Lespedeza procumbens Forb/herb
Britton’s coast violet Viola brittoniana Herbaceous
broad beech fern Phegopteris hexagonoptera Rich mesic to dry-mesic hardwood forests, edges of seeps, and edges of small streams. Generally but not restricted to mineral rich sites. Forb/herb
broad-flowered common dodder Cuscuta gronovii var. latiflora Shores of streams and rivers, marshes, and wet thickets. Less common than var. gronovii, but growing in similar habitats. Vine, Forb/herb
broad-leaved meadowsweet Spiraea alba var. latifolia Streamside meadows, swamps, wet forests, marshes, peatlands, wet thickets, forest openings, ditches, and thin soil over bedrock on exposed open rocky summits. Shrub
broad-leaved rosette grass Dichanthelium latifolium Thin canopied forests, forest edges, and woodlands including pine barrens primarily a plant of the warmer or more southern parts of New York. Generally in drier soils than the somewhat similar Dichanthelium boscii. Graminoid
broad-winged sedge Carex alata Peaty swamp, edges of ponds, and shrubby wet thickets. Sometimes on the bases of Decodon verticillata on pond edges. Graminoid
broom crowberry Corema conradii Subshrub, Shrub
broom sedge bluestem Andropogon virginicus var. virginicus Graminoid
brown bog sedge Carex buxbaumii Rich fens, swamps, and wet fields. It is mostly found in relatively small patches and calcareous sites. Graminoid
brown-fruited rush Juncus pelocarpus Sandy or peaty shores of lakes and streams, and rich fens. Graminoid
brownish beak sedge Rhynchospora capitellata Sandy open habitats. Graminoid
buckbean Menyanthes trifoliata Bogs, poor to rich fens, rich swamps, and cool springy forests. Often in inundated soils and sometimes at the edge of ponds or streams in the habitats mentioned. Forb/herb
bulb-bearing water hemlock Cicuta bulbifera Marshes and swamps. Common but usually not abundant or dense at a particular site. Forb/herb
bulbous wood rush Luzula bulbosa Graminoid
bunchberry Cornus canadensis Cool northern coniferous, hardwood, or mixed forests; on hummocks in swamps and bogs; sub-alpine forests; and edges of forests. Very common in the northern and cooler parts of New York, becoming rare and scattered in the southern and warmer parts of New York. Herbaceous
bur oak Quercus macrocarpa Bottomland forests and swamps in deep alluvium, and limestone and alvar woodlands and forests. Usually does not occur in hilltop swamps where Q. bicolor occurs. On limestone bedrock it sometimes occurs in very dry soils. Tree
bush honeysuckle Diervilla lonicera Bluffs, ledges, rims of cliffs, fine talus slopes, and thin dry rocky forests. Usually dry to dry-mesic and occasionally mesic soils in unshaded to partially shaded and less frequently fully shaded sites. Shrub
Bush’s oak Quercus marilandica Tree
Bush’s sedge Carex bushii Wet-mesic to dry-mesic fields, edges of forests, and utility rights-of-way. Graminoid
bushy aster Symphyotrichum dumosum Forb/herb
bushy bluestem Andropogon glomeratus var. glomeratus Graminoid
bushy bush clover Lespedeza frutescens Dry to dry-mesic woodlands, rocky summits, and edges of forests. Forb/herb
bushy frostweed, bushy rock rose Crocanthemum dumosum Forb/herb
bushy St. John’s wort Hypericum densiflorum Shrub
butterfly weed Asclepias tuberosa Dry-mesic roadsides, edges of railroads, successional fields, meadows, and dry banks of streams. Does particularly well over calcareous rock. Herbaceous
butternut Juglans cinerea In certain parts of its range in New York, it is primarily associated with talus slopes. Elsewhere in New York, it is associated with rich mesic hardwood forests on valley bottoms and lower slopes sometimes on calcareous bedrock and soils. Often it occurs in small patches of only a few trees. Butternut canker is killing this species and it is difficult to find individuals that are not infected. Tree
button sedge Carex bullata Graminoid
buttonbush Cephalanthus occidentalis Ponds, vernal pools, edges of lakes, stream edges, and shrub swamps predominately in shallow water. Tree, Shrub
buttonbush dodder Cuscuta cephalanthi Vine, Forb/herb
calico aster Symphyotrichum lateriflorum Successional fields, roadsides, woodlands, openings in forests, disturbed areas, and less frequently on stream banks and in swamps. Forb/herb
Canada bluejoint grass Calamagrostis canadensis var. canadensis Swamps, marshes, wet roadsides in the northern and cooler parts of New York, and rarely in mesic forest openings. This taxon does well in wet-mesic openings and disturbed areas in forests and is very common in the cooler and more northern parts of New York. Graminoid
Canada brome Bromus pubescens Dry often calcareous open forests or woodlands with moderate to low density of adjacent herbaceous vegetation. Graminoid
Canada frostweed, Canada rock rose Crocanthemum canadense Woodlands and barrens, utility rights-of-way, rocky summits, open bluffs, and fields on thin or sandy soils. Usually in open habitats with acidic, thin or coarse soils and without adjacent dense and tall herbaceous cover. Herbaceous
Canada hawkweed Hieracium kalmii Road side clearings, disturbed areas, thin forests, and edges of forests. Herbaceous
Canada lily Lilium canadense Alluvial thickets, floodplain forests, and wet thickets. Usually flowering best in non-shaded sites. Often in peaty or wet springy soils. Perhaps in more acidic soils than ssp. editorum. More work is needed to asses the habitat differences of the two ssp. Forb/herb
Canada mayflower Maianthemum canadense Mesic hardwood, coniferous, and hardwood-coniferous forests; and hummocks in swamps. It does particularly well in cool northern forests where it can be the dominant herbaceous plant. Forb/herb
Canada onion Allium canadense var. canadense Floodplain forests, alluvial thickets, banks of streams, and rich low forests. Sometimes a little weedy. Mostly restricted to rich deep alluvial soils. Herbaceous
Canada pussytoes Antennaria howellii ssp. canadensis Openings in forests, woodlands, edges of forests, dry roadsides, successional fields, pastures, and dry river banks. Herbaceous
Canada rush Juncus canadensis Marshes, edges of ponds and lakes, fens, and various other wetlands. Often emergent from standing water. One of the later species of Juncus to flower and fruit. Graminoid
Canada waterleaf Hydrophyllum canadense Rich often at least somewhat calcareous mesic hardwood forests. Often with a dense and diverse adjacent herbaceous layer. Forb/herb
Canada waterweed Elodea canadensis Lakes, ponds, small pools, streams, tidal stream, and rivers. Fairly abundant and often forming dense patches in a variety of aquatic habitats, often in quiet water. Forb/herb
Canada wild rye Elymus canadensis var. canadensis Floodplain forests and thickets, stream and river banks, and dunes of the Great Lakes. Graminoid
Canada yew, American yew Taxus canadensis Cool mesic to wet-mesic hardwood to mixed coniferous-hardwood forests, shaded talus slopes, and hummocks in swamps. Highly prized by deer and in areas with an overpopulation of deer becoming restricted to steep slopes and tops of boulders that are inaccessible to deer browse. Shrub
Canadian burnet Sanguisorba canadensis Rich fens, river and ice scour meadows along rivers, and stream banks. Herbaceous
cardinal flower Lobelia cardinalis Marshes, swamps, wet thickets, gravely stream banks, margins of drainages, edges of ponds including marl ponds, and wet ledges. Occurs in both shaded and unshaded sites almost always in saturated to wet-mesic soils. Forb/herb
Carey’s smartweed Persicaria careyi Forb/herb
Carolina bellwort Uvularia puberula Forb/herb
Carolina clubmoss Pseudolycopodiella caroliniana Primarily on Long Island but also rarely inland in depressions adjacent to ponds and inundated soils of Sphagnum dominated bogs. Subshrub, Shrub
Carolina redroot Lachnanthes caroliniana Forb/herb
carpenter’s square Scrophularia marilandica Floodplain forests and thickets, banks of streams, gravel bars in streams, edges of dirt roads, and occasionally in mesic hardwood forests. Herbaceous
cattail sedge Carex typhina Graminoid
chair maker’s bulrush Schoenoplectus americanus Graminoid
checkered rattlesnake plantain Goodyera tesselata Coniferous, mixed hardwood-coniferous, and hardwood forests predominately in thin acidic soils. Herbaceous
chestnut oak Quercus montana Dry to dry-mesic acidic forests and woodlands. A good indicator of thin dry acidic soils it usually occurs on upper slopes, crests, ridges, and hill tops often with an understory of ericaceous shrubs including Kalmia latifolia, Vaccinium spp, and Gaylussacia baccata. Tree
choke cherry Prunus virginiana var. virginiana Thickets, hardwood forests, forest edges, hedgerows, and roadsides. Tree, Shrub
Christmas fern Polystichum acrostichoides A common mesic hardwood forest understory species in the parts of New York that have richer soils. In the more acidic as well as the more northern parts of New York, it becomes less common and more restricted to rich and rocky soils. Fern
cinnamon fern Osmundastrum cinnamomeum var. cinnamomeum A variety of swamp types and wet woods. Mostly restricted to true swamps and sometimes forming very dense extensive patches. Forb/herb
clammy ground cherry Physalis heterophylla Forb/herb
clammy rabbit tobacco Pseudognaphalium macounii Disturbed soils, cut forests, and edges of fields. Perhaps becoming less common as the forests are returning to post agricultural lands. Forb/herb
clasping bugleweed, clasping water horehound Lycopus amplectens Forb/herb
clasping-leaved pondweed Potamogeton perfoliatus Shallow water of lakes and slow moving streams. Forb/herb
climbing false buckwheat Fallopia scandens Thickets, forests edges, openings in forests, weedy disturbed forests, and disturbed sites. Vine, Forb/herb
climbing fern, Hartford fern Lygodium palmatum Herbaceous
climbing hempweed, climbing boneset Mikania scandens Vine, Forb/herb
Clinton’s wood fern Dryopteris clintoniana Swamps, wet woods, and floodplain forests. Usually not forming large stands. Fern
cloudberry Rubus chamaemorus Herbaceous
clustered sanicle, clustered snakeroot Sanicula odorata Rich deciduous and floodplain forests. Forb/herb
cluster-headed sedge Carex cephaloidea Forests, forest edges, thickets, and edges of fields. Predominately in mesic rich soils including deep alluvium. Herbaceous
coastal carrion flower Smilax pseudochina Herbaceous
coastal dock Rumex persicarioides Herbaceous
coastal manna grass Glyceria obtusa Graminoid
coastal marsh mermaid weed Proserpinaca palustris Forb/herb
coastal pilewort Erechtites hieraciifolius var. megalocarpus Forb/herb
coastal plain blue-eyed grass Sisyrinchium fuscatum Forb/herb
coastal plain Joe Pye weed Eutrochium dubium Forb/herb
coastal shadbush Amelanchier canadensis var. canadensis Maritime forests (forests adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean or Long Island Sound), dunes, thickets, swamps, and roadsides in dry-mesic to wet or inundated soils on steep slopes or flat areas. Very common and perhaps restricted to maritime areas where it sometimes becomes a dominant species. Tree, Shrub
coastal silverweed Potentilla anserina ssp. pacifica Upper edges of brackish and salt marshes and adjacent maritime habitats. Forb/herb
coastal sweet pepperbush Clethra alnifolia Edges of acidic ponds, acidic sphagnum wetlands, and bog edges. Often with other shrubs including Rhododendron viscosum Shrub
coastal Virginia wild rye Elymus virginicus var. halophilus Upper edges of salt and brackish marshes and moist coastal dunes. Graminoid
cockspur hawthorn Crataegus crus-galli var. crus-galli Hedgerows, road sides, young successional forests, abandoned pastures, thickets, rocky openings in forests, and forest edges. Tree, Shrub
Collins’s sedge Carex collinsii Graminoid
Colombian watermeal Wolffia columbiana Quiet water of ponds, lakes, and marshes. Often growing in mixed populations with other Wolffia species. Forb/herb
comb-leaved mermaid weed Proserpinaca pectinata Forb/herb
common agrimony Agrimonia gryposepala Successional forests, floodplain forests, hardwood forests, forest edges, thickets, edges of dirt roads and paths through forests, stream banks, ditches, edges of marshes, and successional fields in mesic to wet-mesic soils. A plant of a wide variety of habitats but usually growing in relatively small populations. Herbaceous
common arrowhead Sagittaria latifolia Perhaps our most common Sagittaria this species occurs in a wide variety of wetlands. It often occurs in standing water and occasionally on seasonally exposed soils. Margins of ponds and streams, marshes, ditches and channels. Forb/herb
common blackberry Rubus allegheniensis Forest edges, logged forests, thickets, dirt road sides, and disturbed soils in forests. Shrub
common blue violet Viola sororia Best developed in valley bottoms and lower slopes of mesic to wet-mesic hardwood forests and forest edges; also in mesic forests, forest edges, lawns, disturbed soils, roadsides, thickets, and waste places. Widespread and very common. Herbaceous
common bluets, Quaker ladies Houstonia caerulea Dry-mesic to mesic open forests and woodlands, dirt roads through forests, forest edges, fields with thin herbaceous vegetation, roadsides, lawns, disturbed soils, and open exposed bedrock often in thin dry soils but sometimes in wet sites. Forb/herb
common bristly clubmoss Spinulum annotinum Dry to mesic forests and forest edges. It does well in successional forests. It often grows in cool shaded sites but is not restricted to such habitats and ascends into the sub-alpine and alpine zones. Herbaceous
common carrion flower Smilax herbacea Mesic forests, forest edges, and thickets. Plants in dense shade often are small and remain vegetative. Populations generally consist of only a few individuals or small patches. Vine, Forb/herb
common coontail Ceratophyllum demersum A very common aquatic plant. Ponds, lakes, streams, usually in somewhat slow moving or still water. Very dense in some situations. Forb/herb
common dodder Cuscuta gronovii var. gronovii Shores of streams and rivers, marshes, and wet thickets. The most common Cuscuta in New York, growing in a wide variety of wetland habitats but usually in areas without a tree canopy. Vine, Forb/herb
common duckmeal Spirodela polyrhiza Quiet waters of ponds, lakes, marshes, and streams. Forb/herb
common duckweed Lemna minor Quiet water of lakes, ponds, vernal pools, marshes, and channels. Sometimes becoming temporarily stranded. Forb/herb
common elderberry Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis Marshes, thickets, and stream banks. Mostly in non or only slightly shaded habitats and usually wet or seasonally flooded (sometimes mesic) soils. Shrub
common evening primrose Oenothera biennis Fields, pastures, thickets, gravel and sand bars in streams, roadsides, and disturbed soils. A native species of disturbed sites. Herbaceous
common fireberry hawthorn Crataegus chrysocarpa var. chrysocarpa Tree, Shrub
common flat-topped goldenrod Euthamia graminifolia Wet to mesic fields and thickets, marshes, and roadsides. Euthamia graminifolia generally likes it a little wetter than moist although it does grow in even drier situations. This is one of our common goldenrods and can be dominant in old fields. Forb/herb
common fringed sedge Carex crinita var. crinita Marshes, wet areas in forests, seepages, marshy edges of small streams and ponds, wet fields and pastures, and wet ditches. A very common wetland sedge except perhaps in northern New York. In comparison to C. gynandra, it is perhaps a little less weedy and grows in acidic to basic soils. Graminoid
common golden Alexanders Zizia aurea Floodplain and rich mesic forests, and thickets in bottomlands. This species does well on floodplain terraces and in deep alluvial soils. Forb/herb
common grass-leaved rush Juncus marginatus Marshes, ditches, edges of swamps, and wet fields. Occurs in a wide variety of wet to at least seasonally wet-mesic soils in open habitats. Graminoid
common grass-of-Parnassus Parnassia glauca Rich fens, calcareous rocky stream banks, and calcareous open to partly shaded seeps. Forb/herb
common greenbrier Smilax rotundifolia In dry to wet forests and forest edges of a south affinity; dry thickets and roadsides. It does particularly well in warm successional forests where it can dominate the understory and climb into the canopy. This species often forms large impenetrable thickets. Vine
common hair grass Avenella flexuosa Dry to dry-mesic forests, woodlands, and open habitat including barrens with thin often rocky or gravelly acidic soils. Graminoid
common Jack-in-the-pulpit Arisaema triphyllum Primarily in mesic forests. This taxon does particularly well in deep rich soils but also occurs in less rich sites. Forb/herb
common late purple aster Symphyotrichum patens var. patens Rocky summits, woodlands, and dry rocky forested slopes. A southern species with us mostly in warmer and southern parts of NY. Forb/herb
common lowbush blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium Dry to dry-mesic acidic forests, rocky summits, woodlands, barrens, rocky alpine areas, and fields with thin soils. Mostly in thin dry acidic rocky soils. Shrub
common milkweed Asclepias syriaca Successional fields, occasionally clearings in forests, roadsides, and disturbed ground. Forb/herb
common narrow-leaved pondweed Potamogeton pusillus Shallow water of ponds, lakes, and slow moving streams. Forb/herb
common New York aster Symphyotrichum novi-belgii var. novi-belgii Roadsides, bluffs, and thickets. Forb/herb
common pilewort Erechtites hieraciifolius var. hieraciifolius Cut forests, disturbed ground, thickets, burned forests, rocky summits, and exposed soil of slopes. A disturbance dependant species; after a large scale disturbance such as logging or a burn this species can be very abundant. Forb/herb
common red maple Acer rubrum var. rubrum Occurs in a wide variety of habitats and soil types. Wet swamps to dry forests and young successional habitats this is a very wide spread and common tree. Tree
common shinleaf Pyrola elliptica Mesic forests. The most common Pyrola in non-sandy mesic forests. Subshrub, Shrub
common silverweed Potentilla anserina ssp. anserina Shores of ponds, lakes, and streams, thickets, and disturbed sites often in sandy wet to wet-mesic soils. Herbaceous
common sneezeweed Helenium autumnale Tidal wetlands, marshes, fens, stream banks, and gravel bars in streams. This species does particularly well in the fresh tidal marshes of the Hudson. Forb/herb
common soft rush Juncus effusus ssp. solutus Edges of ponds and streams, wet fields, marshes, openings in swamps, ditches, and swales. Occurs in a wide variety of open wet to seasonally wet habitats. Habitat differences between var. pylaei and var. solutus are not clear. Graminoid
common spike rush Eleocharis palustris Often emergent on edges of lakes, ponds, and rivers. Also in marshes and on floating vegetation in ponds. Graminoid
common spiked lobelia Lobelia spicata var. spicata Wet to mesic fields and thickets; and disturbed soils. Forb/herb
common three-seeded Mercury Acalypha rhomboidea Open forests and woodlands, shores of streams, cultivated ground, disturbed soils, and waste places. Mostly occurring in habitats with open dry to mesic disturbed soils. Herbaceous
common upland star sedge Carex rosea Very common in dry to mesic young successional forests to more mature forests on various soil types. Graminoid
common white snakeroot Ageratina altissima A variety of mesic to slightly wetter forest types, shaded stream banks, shaded shale talus of ravines. In the warmer parts of the state it is quite weedy and does particularly well in successional forests, floodplain forests, and disturbed forests. In cooler parts of the state this species become more particular and prefers richer areas sometimes near but not in seeps. Herbaceous
common wild bergamot Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa Thickets, successional fields, edges and openings in hardwood forests, bluffs, and roadsides. Mostly in dry to dry-mesic soils in open habitats. Subshrub, Shrub
common wild leek Allium tricoccum Rich mesic hardwood forests. Often growing with a diverse and thick herbaceous layer. It often forms very large patches. Forb/herb
common wild strawberry Fragaria virginiana ssp. virginiana Successional fields, pastures, lawns, roadsides, young successional forests, forest openings, disturbed soils, and edges of paths. Forb/herb
common winged sumac Rhus copallinum var. copallinum Exposed rocky ridges, burned over areas, thickets, and fields. Soils often dry and sandy. Tree, Shrub
common winterberry Ilex verticillata Margins of ponds, kettle hole ponds, acidic bogs, deciduous swamps, and shrub swamps (sometimes being the dominant shrub). In most of NY this is our most common wetland Ilex. Tree, Shrub
common wood rush Luzula multiflora ssp. multiflora Mesic forests, pastures, hayfields, and successional fields. Graminoid
common woodland sedge Carex blanda Forests, edges of forests, fields, edges of small streams, paths and roads through forests, railroad edges, and utility rights-of-way. Occurs in a variety of forests including bottomlands as well as more open sites. Usually in mesic but also in dry-mesic to wet soils. Graminoid
common wool grass Scirpus cyperinus Marshes, edges of ponds, openings in swamps, wet fields, and wet ditches. Except perhaps in the northern parts of New York the most common of the wool grasses (S. atrocinctus, S. cyperinus, and S. pedicellatus). Graminoid
common wrinkle-leaved goldenrod Solidago rugosa var. rugosa Successional fields, pastures, wet to mesic forests, swamps, and roadsides. A common widespread species it can form dense large patches in fields. It prefers at least slightly wetter than mesic soils although it grows in mesic conditions as well. Forb/herb
common yarrow Achillea millefolium Fields, waste places, disturbed areas, and rocky open areas. Forb/herb
common yellow nut sedge Cyperus esculentus var. leptostachyus Shores and gravel bars of streams, roadsides, disturbed soils, and waste places including urban settings. Graminoid
common yellow pond lily, common spatter dock Nuphar variegata Lakes, ponds, and slow moving water of streams. Herbaceous
common yellow wood sorrel Oxalis stricta Cultivated ground, fields, pastures, disturbed soils in forests, stream banks, gravel and sand bars in streams, roadsides, and disturbed soils. A weedy species of disturbed soils in open habitats. Forb/herb
Commons’ rosette grass Dichanthelium commonsianum Graminoid
compact dodder Cuscuta compacta Vine, Forb/herb
concealed sedge Carex abscondita Mesic forest and low forests adjacent to small streams in sandy soils. In New York, it may be restricted to the coastal regions. It has been reported from other parts of New York but these specimens may be misidentified. Graminoid
confusing tick trefoil Desmodium perplexum Dry-mesic to mesic woodlands, edges of forests, and thickets. Forb/herb
Copeland’s bog clubmoss Lycopodiella alopecuroides Herbaceous
coppery St. John’s wort Hypericum denticulatum Herbaceous
cornel-leaved white aster Doellingeria infirma Oak-hickory forests and forests and woodlands of a southern affinity. Rocky or thin dry-mesic soils with a thin herbaceous layer. Not common at sites and often occurring in relatively thin small patches. Forb/herb
cow parsnip Heracleum maximum Stream banks, rich seepy forests, occasionally roadside ditches, and wet meadows. Perhaps more common in suitable habitat in the northern part of the state. Forb/herb
cowbane Oxypolis rigidior Forb/herb
cranberry Vaccinium macrocarpon Wet Sphagnum peatlands in acidic to more minerotrophic sites including rich fens and acidic bogs. Subshrub, Shrub
cranefly orchid Tipularia discolor Forb/herb
Crawford’s sedge Carex crawfordii Most common in the northern parts of New York. Gravel and sand mines, roadsides, opening and clearings in forests, and thickets. Mostly in dry to mesic sandy or coarse soils. Graminoid
cream-colored avens Geum virginianum Herbaceous
creeping bush clover Lespedeza repens Dry to mesic acid hardwood forests, woodlands, rocky summits, thickets, and gravelly dirt road sides. Forb/herb
creeping manna grass Glyceria acutiflora Swamps and vernal pools in shallow still standing water. Graminoid
creeping St. John’s wort Hypericum adpressum Forb/herb
crested bindweed Fallopia cristata Vine, Forb/herb
crested sedge Carex cristatella Wet fields, marshes, wet woods, swamps, and floodplain forests with deep alluvial soils. Graminoid
crested wood fern Dryopteris cristata Swamps, opening in swamps, and shrub swamps. Mostly in fairly closed canopy situations to sometimes completely open sites although, generally occurring in habitat with at least some canopy cover. Fern
crisped bunchflower Melanthium hybridum Herbaceous
cuckoo flower Cardamine pratensis Lawns, roadsides, riparian forests, and cool swamps. Sometimes in similar habitat to C. bulbosa but other times in weedy drier sites perhaps representing native and non-native populations. Forb/herb
cucumber tree, cucumber magnolia Magnolia acuminata Mesic forests sometimes in deep rich and/or calcareous soils. Occasionally in dry-mesic or wet-mesic soils. It often occurs sparsely distributed and does not become a dominant tree in New York. Tree
Culver’s root Veronicastrum virginicum Native as well as cultivated and naturalizing. Roadsides, forest edges, thickets, and successional fields. Forb/herb
curly grass fern, curly grass Schizaea pusilla Forb/herb
curved style sedge Carex styloflexa Mesic to seasonally flooded hardwood forests often adjacent to small drainages or creeks with deep soils. Graminoid
cut-leaved evening primrose Oenothera laciniata Herbaceous
cut-leaved goldenrod Solidago arguta Dry-mesic to mesic deciduous forests often along the edge of trails, forest edges, and occasionally roadsides. Mainly in shaded dryish situations. Forb/herb
cut-leaved toothwort Cardamine concatenata Mesic deciduous forests, stream banks, sandy bars in streams, and bottomlands. Usually in deep rich soils on lower and bottom parts of slopes. Much less common if not absent from the cooler parts of the state. Forb/herb
cut-leaved water milfoil Myriophyllum pinnatum Forb/herb
cut-leaved water parsnip Berula erecta Forb/herb
cyperus-like sedge Carex pseudocyperus Swamps, marshes, and roadside ditches. Perhaps somewhat local at least in parts of New York with the similar C. comosa being much more common. Graminoid
daisy-leaved moonwort Botrychium matricariifolium Mostly in mesic forests often in rich sites. Also on edges of dirt roads. Forb/herb
dangleberry Gaylussacia frondosa Dry to mesic upland forests of a southern affinity often in association with other ericaceous shrubs. Shrub
dark-green bulrush Scirpus atrovirens Marshes, openings in swamps, roadside ditches, and less frequently wet fields. Often but not always in somewhat wetter more native and less disturbed habitats than S. hattorianus. Graminoid
dark-green sedge Carex venusta Graminoid
deceitful pussytoes Antennaria parlinii ssp. fallax Gravel roadsides, fields on thin soils. Herbaceous
deerberry Vaccinium stamineum Dry to dry-mesic hardwood forests, edges of forests, and bluffs. Often on ridges, hill tops, or upper slopes in thin dry rocky acidic soils. Shrub
deer-tongue rosette grass Dichanthelium clandestinum Forests and thickets in deep often alluvial mesic to wet-mesic soils including floodplains, banks of streams, and disturbed areas. Generally doing best in partly shaded areas. Graminoid
devil’s walking stick, Hercules’s club Aralia spinosa Utility line cuts, disturbed areas, and young thin forests. Fairly similar to the non-native A. elata and many reports and specimens of A. spinosa may actually be A. elata. Tree, Shrub
Dillenius’s yellow wood sorrel Oxalis dillenii Herbaceous
disguised St. John’s wort Hypericum boreale × H. canadense
disjunct hoary sedge Carex canescens ssp. disjuncta Marshes, sedge meadows, swamps, shrub swamps, and wet ditches. Often in acidic peaty soils although grows in a wide array of habitats. Graminoid
dissected grape fern Botrychium dissectum Fields, pastures, successional forests, mesic forests, forest clearings, utility rights-of-way, and edges of dirt roads. Mostly in thin poor dry to mesic soils in areas of past disturbance. Forb/herb
distinct rosette grass Dichanthelium spretum Graminoid
District of Columbia rosette grass Dichanthelium columbianum Roadsides, gravel pits, woodlands, openings and disturbed areas in forests, and open habitat with thin dry to dry-mesic rocky or gravelly soils. Graminoid
ditch stonecrop Penthorum sedoides Marshes, stream banks, swamps, and ditches. Forb/herb
Dobbin’s blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium
dotted horse mint Monarda punctata var. punctata Forb/herb
dotted smartweed Persicaria punctata Brackish to fresh tidal and non-tidal marshes and swamps. Often in mucky saturated to slightly inundated soils. Herbaceous
downy agrimony Agrimonia pubescens Dry-mesic to mesic oak-hickory forests and woodlands. Forb/herb
downy false foxglove Aureolaria virginica Hardwood forests, woodlands, and forest edges with oaks often in thin dry to dry-mesic soils. Forb/herb
downy goldenrod Solidago puberula Acidic dry rocky ledges and outcrops, cracks and fissures in rocks, thin rocky slopes of forests, and roadsides. Herbaceous
downy rattlesnake plantain Goodyera pubescens Dry-mesic to mesic forests often on thin acidic soils with some pine or hemlock. The adjacent herbaceous vegetation is often sparse. Forb/herb
downy wild rye Elymus villosus var. villosus Floodplain forests and thickets, rich mesic forests, and stream edges. Graminoid
downy willowherb Epilobium strictum Marshes and wet open habitats. Forb/herb
dragon’s mouth Arethusa bulbosa Bogs and poor fens. Sometimes appearing in large numbers but rather local in distribution. Forb/herb
drooping woodreed Cinna latifolia Wet to wet-mesic areas in upland forests and forest openings, occasionally in swamps. More common in cooler and more northern parts of New York. Graminoid
Drummond’s rock cress Boechera stricta Ledges, bluffs, and forests in dry to mesic soils or thin soils over rock (including shales). Herbaceous
dry-spiked sedge Carex siccata Openings in forests and woodlands, and rocky summits. In graminoid dominated habitats. Graminoid
Dudley’s rush Juncus dudleyi Rich fens, calcareous marshes, gravel pits, and at least seasonally wet to wet-mesic fields, ditches, and other mostly open calcareous habitats. Predominately restricted to at least slightly calcareous soils. Graminoid
dune bluestem Schizachyrium littorale Graminoid
dune panic grass Panicum amarum ssp. amarum Maritime dunes and sandy maritime areas. Graminoid
dwarf cherry Prunus pumila var. depressa Ice and river scour meadows and thickets along large rivers. Shrub
dwarf chestnut oak Quercus prinoides Pine and other barrens, rocky summits, opening in woodlands, and utility rights-of way. Often on upper slopes, crests, and hilltops in dry acidic thin, sandy, or rocky soils. Occurs in very similar habitat to Q. ilicifolia but is less common and populations are often not very abundant. Tree
dwarf cinquefoil Potentilla canadensis Successional fields, forests, utility rights-of-way, disturbed soils, and roadsides in thin or sandy dry to dry-mesic soils. Forb/herb
dwarf ginseng Panax trifolius Mesic forests and banks of small streams. In rich to somewhat poorer soils. Forb/herb
dwarf prairie willow Salix humilis var. tristis Shrub
dwarf shadbush Amelanchier spicata Rock outcrops, rocky summits and openings, bluffs, forest edges, grasslands, successional fields, and roadsides in dry sandy to rocky acidic soils. Shrub
dwarf St. John’s wort Hypericum mutilum ssp. mutilum One of the most common wetland Hypericum species in New York. Marshes, stream edges, and pond edges. Does particularly well on open mud flats on draw down zones of ponds, marshes, streams, and drainage channels. Herbaceous
early azalea Rhododendron prinophyllum Dry to dry-mesic forests, forest edges, bluffs, hummocks and edges of swamps, and utility rights-of-way. Primarily a species of slightly open dry acidic oak dominated forests but also somewhat frequent on hummocks in swamps. Shrub
early buttercup, early crowfoot Ranunculus fascicularis Dry-mesic forests and forest edges, alvar habitats, and summits of cliffs and rock outcrops. Primarily in open to partly shaded dry to dry-mesic calcareous habitats. Forb/herb
early goldenrod Solidago juncea Successional fields, edges of forests, woodlands, and road banks. Grows where the soils are thin. It does best in full light where the adjacent herbaceous vegetation is low in stature. Forb/herb
early meadow rue Thalictrum dioicum Mesic hardwood forests and forest edges in thin to deep often calcareous or circumneutral soils. Herbaceous
early saxifrage Micranthes virginiensis Wet to mesic to seasonally dry rock outcrops and ledges; and thin soils on bluffs and in forest openings. Generally associated with rocks and often in areas that are at least seasonally seepy. Forb/herb
eastern bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum ssp. latiusculum Hardwood or pine forests, utility rights-of-way, fields, and thickets. Mostly in thin acidic soils and often associated with Vaccinium and Gaylussacia species. Fern
eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides ssp. deltoides Floodplain and low forests, streamsides, gravel and sand bars in streams, ditches, swamps, and occasionally on upper and middle slopes of hardwood mesic forests. Tree
eastern enchanter’s nightshade Circaea canadensis Mesic forests and thickets. Somewhat weedy, it does well on edges of paths and in disturbed soils in forests. Forb/herb
eastern flat sedge Cyperus lupulinus ssp. macilentus The more common subspecies in New York. Occurs in a variety of open sandy or coarse soil habitats including roadsides, sandy shores of lakes and rivers, rock outcrops in forests, and disturbed soils. Graminoid
eastern gamma grass Tripsacum dactyloides var. dactyloides Dunes and sandy areas near the coast, upper edges of salt marshes, and river shores. Graminoid
eastern grasswort Lilaeopsis chinensis Forb/herb
eastern hemlock Tsuga canadensis A component of mesic cool northern forests throughout New York. In these sites it more often occurs with hardwoods and Pinus strobus than with other conifers. Also commonly on hummocks in swamps where it can sometimes form dense pure stands; often in pure stands, in ravines and on north and east facing lower slopes; and on rocky outcrops and bluffs. Tree
eastern pasture rose Rosa carolina ssp. carolina Edges of forests, thin canopied forests, woodlands, edges of paths and dirt roads through forests, successional fields, and forests openings. Generally in dry to dry-mesic soils. Subshrub, Shrub
eastern poison ivy Toxicodendron radicans ssp. radicans Talus slopes, bases of cliffs, rich mesic forests, wet forests, swamps, and disturbed ground. It occurs in a variety of habitats but does particularly well in calcareous and rich sites. Vine
eastern prickly pear Opuntia humifusa Rocky summits and outcrops, woodlands, sandy maritime areas, and sandy thin fields. In rocky settings it usually occurs in medium sized patches and does not occur evenly spread out throughout a site, probably due to lack of habitat. Shrub, Subshrub
eastern red cedar Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana Rocky summits, bluffs above ravines and lakes, ledges, alvars, successional fields, pastures, and maritime and coastal sandy areas. Grows best in open sites with thin rocky or sandy dry soils and dies back if other trees shade it out. In parts of New York, it is associated with calcareous bedrock or soils and in general is somewhat of a calciphile. Tree
eastern silvery aster Symphyotrichum concolor var. concolor Forb/herb
eastern spring beauty Claytonia virginica Forests and forest edges in dry-mesic to mesic often calcareous soils. Usually in drier sites with thinner soils than the related Claytonia caroliniana. Herbaceous
eastern swamp milkweed Asclepias incarnata ssp. pulchra Herbaceous
eastern sycamore Platanus occidentalis Predominately a tree of riparian habitats including floodplain forests and thickets, edges of streams, and sand and gravel bars in streams. Occasionally isolated trees are found growing on lower to upper slopes away from streams. Tree
eastern willowherb Epilobium coloratum Marshes, springy soils on edges of ponds and lakes, stream sides, cobble and gravel bars in streams, wet thickets, ditches, and openings in swamps. Grows in very similar habitat to E. ciliatum ssp. ciliatum and the two often grow together although E. coloratum is more common in warmer and southern parts of New York. Forb/herb
ebony spleenwort Asplenium platyneuron Thin deciduous forests, rocky summits, thickets, sometimes on or near rock, and occasionally successional old fields. Mostly in dry-mesic to mesic soils and not occurring in the most acidic soils and perhaps more abundant in more mineral rich sites. This species appears to be increasing in New York. Herbaceous
eel grass Zostera Marina Forb/herb
elegant drooping sedge Carex prasina Mucky forested seeps, edges of small forested streams, marshes, and occasionally in rich peaty open wetlands. A characteristic plant of the edges of small slow moving streams and forested seeps. In these habitats it often forms dense linear patches. Graminoid
Elliott’s goldenrod Solidago latissimifolia Forb/herb
elliptic spike rush Eleocharis elliptica Rich fens, open seepy calcareous habitats, and swamps. Preferring calcareous soils. Graminoid
elm-leaved goldenrod Solidago ulmifolia var. ulmifolia Usually dry to occasionally more mesic rocky deciduous forests, woodlands, forest edges, and bluffs. Mostly a forest or woodland species. Perhaps preferring calcareous soils. Forb/herb
elongated loosestrife Lysimachia quadrifolia × L. terrestris Forb/herb
Emmons’s sedge Carex emmonsii Dry-mesic forests, forest edges, thickets, and graminoid dominated bluffs above the ocean. Occurs on sandy soils mostly close to the coast. Inland populations need to be verified. This taxa may be worthy of specific status and although taxonomic research on C. albicans and its varieties has been done, further taxonomic research may still be helpful. Graminoid
Engelmann’s arrowhead Sagittaria engelmanniana Forb/herb
Engelmann’s quillwort Isoetes engelmannii Herbaceous
Engelmann’s vervain Verbena hastata Forb/herb
entangled hawthorn Crataegus intricata Tree, Shrub
Erskine’s goldenrod Solidago canadensis Forb/herb
evergreen log wood fern Dryopteris celsa Fern
evergreen wood fern, fancy wood fern, common wood fern Dryopteris intermedia A wide variety of mesic forests. Clearly the most common Dryopteris in upland habitats. Fern
exserted Virginia wild rye Elymus virginicus var. jejunus Graminoid
fall witch grass Digitaria cognata Graminoid
false hellebore, Indian corn lily Veratrum viride Edges of forested streams, seepages, swamps in mucky soils, and low wet forests. Sometimes forms dense patches. Forb/herb
false hop sedge Carex lupuliformis Graminoid
false nettle Boehmeria cylindrica Wet to seasonally wet areas in bottomland forests, low areas in swamps, marshy areas in forested streams, and marshes. Primarily but not restricted to shaded habitats with slightly inundated to wet soils (at least seasonally). Sometimes forming dense large populations. Forb/herb
false Solomon’s seal Maianthemum racemosum Mesic hardwood and hardwood-coniferous forests. Widespread and common in a variety of forest types but perhaps absent from the drier most acidic sites. Forb/herb
false summer sedge Carex aestivalis Graminoid
false yellow nut sedge Cyperus strigosus Shores of lakes and streams, roadsides, railroad edges, disturbed soils, cultivated ground, and waste places. One of the most common Cyperus species in New York. Graminoid
Farwell’s water milfoil Myriophyllum farwellii Forb/herb
Faxon’s oak Quercus alba Tree
Fernald’s false manna grass Torreyochloa pallida var. fernaldii Edges of ponds and lakes, stream margins, and marshes. Often in slightly inundated to saturated mucky soils. Graminoid
Fernald’s sedge Carex merritt-fernaldii Open habitat with sandy or rocky acidic sterile soils. Most often found in disturbed non-native settings such as gravel pits, sand mines, and dry roadsides. Graminoid
fescue sedge Carex festucacea Small stream edges, seasonally wet areas in forests, edges of forests, roadsides, and pastures. Occurs in very dry sites as well as areas that are at least seasonally wet. Graminoid
few-flowered nut sedge Scleria pauciflora Graminoid
field bead grass Paspalum laeve Graminoid
field dodder Cuscuta campestris Herbaceous
field horsetail, common horsetail Equisetum arvense A wide range of mostly wet habitats but also in some drier disturbed sites. Rich fens, swamps, seepage areas in upland forests, shores and edges of ponds and streams, ditches, wet gravel pits, roadsides, and disturbed soils. The most common Equisetum in New York it is sometimes weedy. Herbaceous
field pussytoes Antennaria neglecta Banks of dirt roads, edges of forests, and open forests on thin soils. Forb/herb
field sedge Carex conoidea Fields, pastures, utility rights-of-way, thickets, and roadsides. Mostly in mesic soils in open sites. Herbaceous
fireweed Chamaenerion angustifolium ssp. circumvagum Clearing and openings in forests, edges of forests, roadsides, and disturbed soils. Responds well to fire and clearing. Most common in northern New York where it can form extensive patches. Forb/herb
five-angled dodder Cuscuta pentagona Vine
flaccid manna grass Glyceria laxa Graminoid
flat-branched tree clubmoss Dendrolycopodium obscurum A wide variety of mesic forests and forest opening including forested roadsides. Most common in all but the coolest parts of New York. Appears to do best in successional forests, areas with thin soils, and sites with recent disturbances. Herbaceous
floating manna grass Glyceria septentrionalis var. septentrionalis Marshes and edges of ponds in shallow standing water or saturated mucky soils. Graminoid
floating-leaved pondweed Potamogeton natans Shallow acid to alkaline water of ponds, lakes, and slow moving streams. Forb/herb
flowering dogwood Cornus florida Understories of hardwood forests, forest edges, and woodlands in mesic to dry soils. Also in cultivation. Tree
flowering duckweed Lemna perpusilla Forb/herb
flowering spurge Euphorbia corollata Forb/herb
flowering yellow wood sorrel Oxalis florida Herbaceous
fly poison Amianthium muscitoxicum Herbaceous
forest milkweed Asclepias exaltata Mesic deciduous forests and edges of forested roads and paths. Not evenly scattered throughout a site but usually restricted to a few distinct patches. Forb/herb
forest wild licorice Galium circaezans Mesic hardwoods forests from valley bottoms to upper slopes often in relatively undisturbed habitats. Herbaceous
forked rosette grass Dichanthelium dichotomum ssp. dichotomum Dry-mesic to mesic forests primarily in warmer habitats or more southern parts of New York. Graminoid
forked rush Juncus dichotomus Graminoid
four-leaved milkweed Asclepias quadrifolia Forests to thin forests and woodlands of a southern affinity. Mostly an understory herb that does not do well with intense herbaceous competition. The herb layer may be rather full and diverse but not with dense tall plants. Does particularly well over calcareous rocks. Forb/herb
fowl blue grass Poa palustris Swamps, marshes, ditches, wet disturbed areas, wet ledges, and fens. Herbaceous
fowl manna grass Glyceria striata Edges of small streams, seeps in forests, swamps, damp dirt roads through forests, wet thickets, and occasionally marshes. A very common species that often occur in shaded habitats that have at least seasonally wet soils. Graminoid
fox grape Vitis labrusca Thickets, forest edges, and forests (often young forests or forests with a history of disturbance). Vine
fox sedge Carex vulpinoidea Wet fields, wet pastures, marshes, swamps, edges of ponds and streams, and wet ditches. A very common wetland species mostly growing in open sites with soils that are inundated to seasonally saturated. Graminoid
foxtail bog clubmoss Lycopodiella alopecuroides Subshrub, Shrub
fragile fern Cystopteris fragilis Wet cliffs and ledges, and sometime in soil below rock outcrops. Herbaceous
fragrant sumac Rhus aromatica var. aromatica Thin forests, edges of forests, openings, rocky openings, and thickets. Often in sandy or calcareous soils. Shrub
fragrant white water lily Nymphaea odorata ssp. odorata Lakes, ponds, and slow moving water of streams. Herbaceous
Fraser’s marsh St. John’s wort Hypericum fraseri Marshes, shrub swamps, and acidic peaty wetlands. Forb/herb
fringed loosestrife Lysimachia ciliata Fens, swamps, marshes, ditches, and wet thickets. Herbaceous
fringed willowherb Epilobium ciliatum ssp. ciliatum Marshes, springy soils on edges of ponds and lakes, stream sides, cobble and gravel bars in streams, wet thickets, ditches, and openings in swamps. Grows in very similar habitat to E. coloratum and the two often grow together although E. ciliatum ssp. ciliatum is more common in cooler and northern parts of New York. Forb/herb
frosted hawthorn Crataegus pruinosa Hedgerows, thin forests and woodlands, forest edges, and road sides. Tree, Shrub
frostweed aster Symphyotrichum pilosum var. pilosum Roadsides, successional fields, pastures, waste places, and disturbed areas. A weedy species very commonly along roads and in disturbed soils. Forb/herb
gaywings, fringed milkwort Polygaloides paucifolia Acidic mesic hardwood and mixed coniferous-hardwood forests often with the adjacent herbaceous vegetation sparse. Often occurs with Gaultheria procumbens and the moss Leucobryum glaucum. Forb/herb
Georgia bulrush Scirpus georgianus Marshes, wet fields, and wet roadsides. Often grows in the drier parts of marshes and in slightly saturated or simply wet-mesic soils. Graminoid
giant bur-reed Sparganium eurycarpum Edges of lakes, ponds, and slow moving streams; channels in swamps, marshes, and peatlands; and marshes. This species grows in shallow water and is often associated with large extensive marshes. Forb/herb
glandular dodder Cuscuta obtusiflora var. glandulosa Vine, Forb/herb
glaucous rattlesnake root Nabalus racemosus Herbaceous
globe beak sedge Rhynchospora recognita Graminoid
globe flat sedge Cyperus echinatus Graminoid
globe-fruited seed-box Ludwigia sphaerocarpa Forb/herb
glomerate sedge Carex aggregata Graminoid
goat’s rue Tephrosia virginiana Rocky summits, talus slopes, woodlands, and bluffs. Primarily a species of dry rocky soils in unshaded habitats. Occurs in the more southern and warmer parts of New York. Herbaceous
golden carpet Chrysosplenium americanum Forested seeps, wet forests, stream edges, and marshes. Often in shaded habitats in saturated mucky soils. Forb/herb
golden club Orontium aquaticum In New York this species is known mostly from tidal marshes along the Hudson River. Most are freshwater although some are perhaps slightly brackish. The plants also occur in adjacent swamps. Also in acidic peat bogs and ponds (in one case planted and persisting in an acidic bog.) Forb/herb
golden heather Hudsonia ericoides Subshrub, Shrub
golden hedge hyssop Gratiola aurea Forb/herb
golden ragwort Packera aurea Rich fens, swamps, seepages in forests and openings. Mostly a calciphile, Packera aurea does particularly well in mucky seepage areas. Forb/herb
golden-fruited sedge Carex aurea Fens, swamps, wet fields, wet rocky ledges and cliffs, river shores, seepy calcareous roadsides, alvars, and mesic forests adjacent to swamps. Mostly grows in open sites but can also be found in somewhat shaded environments. It does particularly well on edges of rivulets through fens where the adjacent herbaceous vegetation is not dense or tall. In a similar fashion, it does well on calcareous open seepy rock outcrops. It is mostly associated with high pH water and/or soils. Graminoid
graceful sedge Carex gracillima In most of New York, this is the most common member of section Hymenochlaenae. Fields, pastures, forests, thickets, utility rights-of-way, and dirt roads. The soils are mesic to wet-mesic or occasionally are seasonally flooded. Occurs in rich to somewhat poorer sites although it is perhaps absent from the most acidic soils. Graminoid
grass pink Calopogon tuberosus var. tuberosus Bogs and fens. In a wide variety of peatlands from very acidic to basic soils. Primarily in very open sites but sometimes in more shaded situations. Forb/herb
grass-leaved arrowhead Sagittaria graminea ssp. graminea Forb/herb
grass-leaved ladies’ tresses Spiranthes vernalis Forb/herb
grass-leaved pondweed Potamogeton gramineus Shallow water of lakes and slow moving streams. Forb/herb
gray birch Betula populifolia Woodlands, pine barrens, edges of forests, bluffs, successional fields, thickets, disturbed ground, and road sides on thin often rocky poor soils. Responds well to disturbance including fire. Tree
gray dogwood, red-panicled dogwood Cornus racemosa Old fields, shrub thickets, shrub swamps, hummocks in swamps, and hedgerows. Occurs both in uplands and wetlands. Tree, Shrub
gray goldenrod Solidago nemoralis ssp. nemoralis Woodlands, edges of forests, successional fields, bluffs, and road banks. Grows in dry to mesic thin poor soils but tends to do best in the drier sites. The adjacent herbaceous vegetation is thin and not tall. Forb/herb
gray sedge Carex grisea Floodplain forests, forested banks of streams and rivers, seepy areas, and mesic forested slopes. Mostly in association with floodplains in deep alluvium but occasionally occurring up slope in thinner soils. Perhaps more common but not restricted to calcareous soils. Graminoid
Gray’s flat sedge Cyperus grayi Coastal dunes. Graminoid
Gray’s sedge Carex grayi Floodplain forests and thickets, and stream and river edges. A species that is almost entirely restricted to a very distinct niche; wet deciduous forested floodplains in deep alluvium. Herbaceous
great blue lobelia Lobelia siphilitica var. siphilitica Seepage areas, stream margins, fens, ditches, and drainage channels; wet thickets and forests; swamps and seepy road banks. Does particularly well in calcareous seepage areas. Forb/herb
Great Plains flat sedge Cyperus lupulinus ssp. lupulinus Graminoid
great rosebay, great laurel Rhododendron maximum Swamps, edges of ponds, and occasionally in wet forests. In central and western New York it is restricted to small disjunct patches in cool swamps. In southeastern New York it becomes more common. Tree, Shrub
great water dock Rumex britannica Marshes, swamps, and wet thickets. Often in unshaded to partly shaded habitats. Sometimes forming large populations. Forb/herb
greater bladderwort Utricularia vulgaris ssp. macrorhiza Floating in quiet water of lakes, ponds, and streams. Forb/herb
green adder’s mouth Malaxis unifolia Forb/herb
green alder Alnus alnobetula ssp. crispa Edges of lakes, wet areas in high elevation sites, bogs, and thickets. A northern species with us only in northern NY. Tree, Shrub
green arrow arum, tuckahoe Peltandra virginica Forb/herb
green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica Margins of streams and rivers, floodplain forests, low wet woods, and occasionally swamps although in larger swamps F. nigra is usually the dominant Fraxinus present. Tree
green milkweed Asclepias viridiflora Forb/herb
green rock cress Borodinia missouriensis Thin forests, woodlands, and dry ledges. Sometimes adjacent to more open barrens or rocky summits. Forb/herb
Greene’s rush Juncus greenei Dry to sometimes seasonal wet fields predominately in very sandy soils. Occasionally in cracks in rock outcrops. Graminoid
green-flowered shinleaf Pyrola chlorantha Cool northern mesic forests and edges of swamps. Subshrub, Shrub
green-fruited bur-reed Sparganium chlorocarpum Edges of lakes, ponds, and slow moving streams; channels in swamps, marshes, and rich fens; and marshes. This species generally occurs in shallow water on mucky soils. Herbaceous
greenish-white sedge Carex albolutescens Acidic swamps. Graminoid
green-keeled cotton grass Eriophorum viridicarinatum Rich fens and calcareous swamps. Mostly in open calcareous habitats. Graminoid
groundnut Apios americana Floodplain forests, thickets, stream and ditch edges, and edges of marshes. Often in open sites with soils that are at least seasonally wet-mesic but dry out later in the season. Vine, Forb/herb
groundsel tree Baccharis halimifolia Upper edge of salt or brackish tidal marshes and adjacent upland maritime areas. Tree, Shrub
grove blue grass Poa alsodes Rich mesic forests and edges of paths and dirt roads through mesic forests. Appears to have an affinity for lightly disturbed soils in rich mesic forested sites and in such situations it can form large populations. Graminoid
Haberer’s ground cedar Diphasiastrum digitatum Herbaceous
hairy angelica, deadly angelica Angelica venenosa Forb/herb
hairy beardtongue Penstemon hirsutus Bluffs, ledges, rock outcrops, non-shaded alvar habitats, thin soil over bedrock, and occasionally in disturbed sites. Perhaps most abundant over calcareous bedrock and soils. Forb/herb
hairy bedstraw Galium pilosum ssp. pilosum Dry-mesic forests and woodlands of a southern affinity; forest edges. Often in undisturbed habitats. Forb/herb
hairy bush clover Lespedeza hirta ssp. hirta Woodlands, dry fields, thin forests, clearings in forests, railroad edges, and utility rights-of-way. Similar habitat to L. capitata but perhaps sometimes in slightly more shaded sites. Forb/herb
hairy fimbry Fimbristylis puberula var. puberula Graminoid
hairy goldenrod Solidago hispida Dry to dry-mesic rocky forested slopes and woodlands, edges of forests, and bluffs. Grows where the herbaceous vegetation is not dense or tall. Forb/herb
hairy horse mint Monarda punctata var. villicaulis Sandy fields, roadsides, and utility rights-of-way. Forb/herb
hairy pinweed Lechea mucronata Utility rights-of-way and other open habitats in thin soils. Forb/herb
hairy skullcap Scutellaria elliptica var. elliptica Forb/herb
hairy small-leaved tick trefoil Desmodium ciliare Edge of forests, fields with thin open soils, and thickets. A species mostly of open habitats with dry soils Forb/herb
hairy Solomon’s seal Polygonatum pubescens Mesic rich to somewhat poorer hardwood forests and forested ledges. Forb/herb
hairy southeastern wild rye Elymus glabriflorus var. australis Graminoid
hairy thoroughwort Eupatorium pubescens Forb/herb
hairy wild rye Elymus glabriflorus var. glabriflorus Graminoid
hairy wire-stemmed muhly Muhlenbergia mexicana Disturbed sites, alluvial thickets, utility rights-of-way, edges of streams, and thin forests. This species can occur in a wide range of habitats and can occur in dry to wet soils. It primarily appears to be associated with disturbed sites of various sizes and populations are usually not very large. Graminoid
hairy-awned muhly Muhlenbergia capillaris Graminoid
halberd-leaved tearthumb Persicaria arifolia Swamps, marshes, and wet thickets. Herbaceous
harebell Campanula rotundifolia Dry to wet calcareous and acidic open rocky areas often on or in cracks of rocks and also in adjacent soils. Gravel shores, ledges, cliffs, rocky outcrops and summits, and river banks. Forb/herb
hay-scented fern Dennstaedtia punctilobula Hardwood forests, fields with thin acidic soils, blueberry barrens, thickets, utility rights-of-way and logging roads. Often forming extensive dense patches. Fern
hazel dodder Cuscuta coryli Vine, Forb/herb
heart sorrel, wild sorrel Rumex hastatulus Forb/herb
heart-leaved aster Symphyotrichum cordifolium Thin forests, woodlands, edges of forests, trails and paths in forests, rocky slopes, and disturbed soils. Perhaps its preferred habitat is along edges of forests where it gets a lot of light but herbaceous competition is minimal. Forb/herb
heart-leaved golden Alexanders Zizia aptera Thin dry open forests, edges of forests, clearings with low non aggressive herbaceous vegetation, rims of larger ravines, and non weedy roadsides and paths. It prefers dry sites that have a thin canopy. Dense canopies may cause this species to disappear. This species has similar habitat preferences to Taenidia integerrima although Z. aptera does equally well in non calcareous sites. Herbaceous
heart-leaved twayblade Neottia cordata var. cordata Cool peaty swamps. Herbaceous
heart-leaved willow, Missouri willow Salix eriocephala Swamps, wet thickets, wet successional fields, roadsides, ditches, marshes, and edges of lakes and streams. Tree, Shrub
heath aster Symphyotrichum ericoides var. ericoides Forb/herb
hedge bindweed Calystegia sepium Vine, Forb/herb
Helene’s ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia Forb/herb
hemlock parsley Conioselinum chinense Rich swamps and fens; banks of cold small drainages. This species prefers shaded conditions. Forb/herb
hemlock water parsnip Sium suave Standing water in swamps, edges and backwaters of streams, and channels through marshes. This species can grow in deep water. Leaves in deep water are finely dissected. Forb/herb
Hervey’s aster Eurybia macrophylla Forb/herb
Hickey’s tree clubmoss Dendrolycopodium hickeyi Dry to mesic forests and forest edges. Compared to the other two Dendrolycopodium species it appears to do best in dry sandy soils but it is not limited to this habitat. Herbaceous
hidden dropseed Sporobolus clandestinus Graminoid
highbush blueberry Vaccinium corymbosum In a wide variety of wetlands and also in dry thin soils on crests and upper slopes. Rich fens, acidic bogs, swamps, shrub swamps, wet thickets, edges of marshes, and mesic forests. Shrub
hillside blueberry Vaccinium pallidum Dry to dry-mesic hardwood forests, edges of forests, woodlands, rocky summits, barrens, and old fields. Often associated with other Vaccinium spp. and ericaceous shrubs. Subshrub, Shrub
hispid hedge nettle Stachys hispida Forb/herb
hoary frostweed, hoary rock rose Crocanthemum bicknellii Utility rights-of-way, rocky summits, and woodlands. Often in acidic sandy soils. Herbaceous
hoary mountain mint Pycnanthemum incanum var. incanum Dry-mesic hardwood forests, woodlands, rocky summits, and edges of fields. Mostly a plant of dry partly shaded habitats. It is much more abundant in warmer and more southern parts of New York. Forb/herb
hoary tick trefoil Desmodium canescens Forb/herb
hobblebush Viburnum lantanoides Coniferous, mixed hardwood-coniferous, and hardwood forests; forested stream banks, rocky ledges, and ravine slopes. Very common in the cooler parts of the state including the Adirondacks where it can form dense thickets. These dense thickets may be the result of heavy logging. In other parts of the state it is more restricted to cool forests and ravine slopes and occurs in much thinner patches. Shrub
hog peanut Amphicarpaea bracteata Mesic hardwood forests and forested thickets. Sometimes occurs in wet-mesic soils but usually more of a mesic soil species. Vine
hollow Joe Pye weed Eutrochium fistulosum Marshes, ditches, and more mesic disturbed or open areas, and roadsides. Forb/herb
honewort Cryptotaenia canadensis Wet to mesic forests and thickets often in rich soils. It does well in bottomlands and weedy alluvial soils. It occasionally occurs in slightly more open areas but prefers shade. Forb/herb
hooked buttercup, hooked crowfoot Ranunculus recurvatus var. recurvatus Mesic to wet-mesic hardwood forests and less frequently hummocks in swamps. Forb/herb
hop hornbeam, ironwood Ostrya virginiana An understory small tree it occurs in a variety of forested environments, woodlands, and rocky openings. It does best in thin forests and woodlands in rich dryish thin rocky soils and over calcareous bedrock. In these habitats it can become a dominant understory tree. Tree
hop sedge Carex lupulina Present in most swamps although usually in low numbers. Hardwood swamps, openings in swamps, shrub swamps, wet floodplain forests, edges of streams, thickets, marshes, ditches, and swales. Often occurs in standing water and prefers the hollows, as opposed to the hummocks, in swamps. Graminoid
hoptree, wafer ash Ptelea trifoliata var. trifoliata Tree
horned beak sedge Rhynchospora inundata Graminoid
horned pondweed Zannichellia palustris Shallow fresh or brackish water in tidal and non-tidal habitats. Forb/herb
horse nettle Solanum carolinense var. carolinense Roadsides, disturbed sites, pastures, successional fields, cultivated ground, floodplain forests, and thickets. Herbaceous
horsetail spike rush Eleocharis equisetoides Graminoid
Houghton’s flat sedge Cyperus houghtonii Graminoid
hurrah bead grass Paspalum setaceum var. muhlenbergii Successional fields, roadsides, and disturbed areas in sandy soil. Graminoid
hybrid bush clover Lespedeza angustifolia × L. capitata
hybrid bush clover Lespedeza hirta × L. repens
hybrid bush clover Lespedeza hirta × L. stuevei
hybrid cattail Typha angustifolia × T. latifolia Brackish and fresh tidal and non-tidal marshes, ditches, pond and lake edges, swamps, and wet thickets. Very common in roadside ditches and disturbed wetlands. Forb/herb
hybrid dogbane Apocynum androsaemifolium × A. cannabinum Forb/herb
hybrid sedge Carex gracillima × C. swanii
hybrid sundew Drosera intermedia × D. rotundifolia
hybrid violet Viola brittoniana × V. cucullata Herbaceous
hybrid violet Viola brittoniana × V. sagittata var. ovata Herbaceous
hybrid violet Viola lanceolata × V. primulifolia Forb/herb
hybrid violet Viola affinis × V. brittoniana
hybrid violet Viola affinis × V. hirsutula
hybrid violet Viola brittoniana × V. palmata
hybrid violet Viola brittoniana × V. sagittata var. sagittata
hybrid violet Viola cucullata × V. pectinata
hybrid violet Viola cucullata × V. primulifolia
hybrid violet Viola hirsutula × V. sagittata var. ovata
hybrid violet Viola hirsutula × V. subsinuata
hybrid violet Viola palmata × V. sororia
hybrid wood fern Dryopteris celsa × D. cristata Fern
hybrid wood fern Dryopteris celsa × D. goldiana Fern
hybrid wood fern Dryopteris goldiana × D. intermedia Fern
hyssop skullcap Scutellaria integrifolia Forb/herb
hyssop-leaved thoroughwort Eupatorium hyssopifolium Forb/herb
Indian cucumber root Medeola virginiana Mesic to wet-mesic hardwood, coniferous, and hardwood-coniferous forests. Occurs primarily in cool northern forests. Forb/herb
Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans Ice and river scour shores of large rivers, roadsides, occasionally in fens, and open thickets. Graminoid
Indian hemp Apocynum cannabinum Dry thin forests, rocky openings, fields, thickets, gravely stream banks, and roadsides. It is also occasionally found in marshes. Forb/herb
Indian pipe Monotropa uniflora In a wide variety of dry-mesic to mesic forests. New plants appear in mid-summer. Forb/herb
inkberry Ilex glabra Restricted to coastal regions. Sometimes forming a dense understory. Shrub
intermediate milkweed Asclepias amplexicaulis × A. syriaca
intermediate shadbush Amelanchier intermedia Hummocks in forested swamps, shrub swamps, openings in swamps, marshes, wet thickets, and rich fens. Tree
intermediate spike rush Eleocharis intermedia Edges of channels and streams in calcareous sites including rich fens. Herbaceous
interrupted fern Osmunda claytoniana Swamps, wet and wet-mesic forests, edges of streams, and wet roadsides. Often in true wetlands but sometimes growing in more upland soils. It can be a little weedy. Sometimes with O. cinnamomea but also growing in drier and more disturbed habitats than the latter. Forb/herb
intertidal yellow pond lily, intertidal spatter dock Nuphar advena ssp. advena In New York, it is predominately a species of the fresh and brackish tidal marshes along the Hudson River but also occurs in ponds and edges of lakes. Populations in artificially created wetlands may represent introductions. Herbaceous
ipecac spurge Euphorbia ipecacuanhae Forb/herb
Jack pine Pinus banksiana Primarily occurs in sandstone barrens in Clinton County on thin dry soils over bedrock. Otherwise restricted to northern New York as a native tree. Tree
Jack’s oak Quercus alba × Q. bicolor Tree
jointed rush Juncus articulatus Marshes, edges of swamps, wet ditches, shores of streams and ponds, and rich fens. Occurs in a wide variety of wet mostly open habitats. Graminoid
jumpseed Persicaria virginiana Mesic forests and forest edges, floodplain forests and thickets, stream edges often but not restricted to rich deep wet-mesic to mesic soils. Herbaceous
Kalm’s lobelia Lobelia kalmii Wet calcareous cliffs; gravelly and peaty banks of streams and ponds; and fens and other calcareous wet sites. Lobelia kalmii is a small plant and it grows best where the adjacent herbaceous vegetation is low. It grows almost exclusively in calcareous wet sites. Forb/herb
Kansas hawthorn Crataegus coccinioides Shrub
Kearney’s threeawn Aristida geniculata Graminoid
kidney-leaved buttercup, kidney-leaved crowfoot Ranunculus abortivus Rich mesic to dry-mesic forests, thickets, forested rock outcrops, cliffs, talus slopes, and edges of dirt roads and paths through forests. Herbaceous
knotroot foxtail Setaria parviflora Graminoid
knotted rush Juncus nodosus Marshes, shores and banks of streams and ponds including ice scoured shores, openings in swamps, rich fens, and ditches. Widespread in a wide variety of open wetlands. Graminoid
lake sedge Carex lacustris Fens, marshes, sedge meadows, edges of streams, shrub swamps, and openings in forested swamps. Sometimes forming extensive monospecific thickets. Prefers rich calcareous soils although it is not restricted to these sites. Often occurs with few fertile culms and the amount of flowering/fruiting appears to be either cyclical or dependant on seasonal climatic events. Graminoid
lance-leaved aster Symphyotrichum lanceolatum var. lanceolatum Floodplain forests and thickets, successional fields, wet forests, swamps, stream banks, roadsides, and ditches. A vigorous spreader this species is quite weedy and has long rhizomes that can form large clonal patches. It grows in a variety of habitats from dry to wet and from open to shaded. Forb/herb
lance-leaved figwort Scrophularia lanceolata Dry-mesic to mesic thin canopied forests, woodlands, and forest edges. Predominately in thin or well drained rocky soils. Forb/herb
lance-leaved violet Viola lanceolata Edges of streams, pond and lake margins, and wet thickets. In non-shaded wetlands on saturated (at least seasonally) sandy soils with adjacent vegetation sparse. Forb/herb
lance-leaved wild licorice Galium lanceolatum Dry-mesic to mesic hardwood forests, woodlands, and forest edges. Forb/herb
large grass-leaved rush Juncus biflorus Graminoid
large marsh pink Sabatia dodecandra var. dodecandra Forb/herb
large Solomon’s seal Polygonatum biflorum var. commutatum
large straw sedge Carex normalis A fairly common member of section Ovales at least in parts of New York. It occurs in a wide variety of habitats that are dry to wet and open or shaded. Gravel pits, roadsides, seepy wet forests, floodplain thickets, abandoned railroad grades, and openings in forests. Graminoid
large whorled pogonia Isotria verticillata Forb/herb
large-bracted tick trefoil Desmodium cuspidatum Forb/herb
large-fruited bur-reed Sparganium androcladum Forb/herb
large-leaved aster Eurybia macrophylla Dry-mesic to mesic forests and woodlands. Eurybia macrophylla does particularly well on the edges of these habitats. Forb/herb
large-podded pinweed Lechea intermedia Woodlands, pine barrens, rocky summits, utility rights-of-way, fields, and gravel pits. Mostly in acidic thin soils. Herbaceous
large-tubercled spike rush Eleocharis tuberculosa Graminoid
late hawthorn Crataegus calpodendron Tree, Shrub
late spotted coralroot Corallorhiza maculata var. maculata A wide variety of mesic forest types but perhaps most common in hardwoods, hardwood-Tsuga canadensis forests, and hardwood-Pinus strobus forests. Patches often consist of small numbers of individuals and patches are often widely scattered at a site. Forb/herb
leafy bulrush Scirpus polyphyllus Marshes and openings in swamps. Graminoid
leafy pondweed Potamogeton foliosus ssp. foliosus Shallow water of ponds, lakes, and slow moving streams. Forb/herb
least moonwort Botrychium simplex Forb/herb
leatherleaf Chamaedaphne calyculata Bogs, edges of ponds, and acidic peaty open sites. Mostly confined to acidic peatlands where it can form dense extensive monospecific stands or become mixed with other low shrubs to from dense shrub thickets. Shrub
leathery grape fern Botrychium multifidum Fields, roadsides, clearings in forests, and successional forests. Mostly in thin poor soils in open habitats. Forb/herb
LeConte’s violet Viola affinis Herbaceous
Leggett’s pinweed Lechea pulchella Forb/herb
Leonard’s skullcap Scutellaria parvula var. missouriensis Herbaceous
lesser bladder sedge Carex vesicaria Marshes, swales on edges of rivers and streams, lake shores, and openings in swamps. Graminoid
lesser bladderwort Utricularia minor In shallow water of depressions in fens and bogs, channels through sedge meadows and marshes, and edges of ponds and lakes. Forb/herb
lesser horse gentian Triosteum angustifolium Forb/herb
lesser purple fringed orchid Platanthera psycodes Margins of streams, swamps, openings in swamps, marshes, and wet low forests. Herbaceous
lily-leaved twayblade Liparis liliifolia Forb/herb
limestone meadow sedge Carex granularis Forests, floodplain forests, wet soils in forests, fens, seepy open habitats, fields, and thickets. Occurs in wet to dry-mesic soils. The soils are sometimes clay or dense and seasonally flooded or poorly drained. Does well in disturbed and open habitats and can be common in wet somewhat calcareous fields. Graminoid
Lindheimer’s rosette grass Dichanthelium lindheimeri Graminoid
linear-leaved rosette grass Dichanthelium linearifolium Open or partly open habitats with dry thin or well-drained sandy to rocky soils often with adjacent herbaceous vegetation thin including roadsides, barrens, rocky summits, and disturbed sites. Graminoid
lined sedge Carex striatula Forested slopes on rich to somewhat poor mesic soils. Graminoid
lion’s foot rattlesnake root Nabalus serpentarius Forb/herb
little bluestem Schizachyrium scoparium var. scoparium Rocky summits, openings in woodlands and thin canopied forests, successional fields, roadsides, stream banks, and pine barrens. Generally in open dry sites. Graminoid
little club spur orchid Platanthera clavellata Bogs, open seepy habitats with thin soil, wet roadsides, and ditches. Sometimes quite common in previously disturbed wet open habitats. Forb/herb
little floating heart Nymphoides cordata Forb/herb
little ladies’ tresses Spiranthes tuberosa Forb/herb
lizard’s tail Saururus cernuus Shallow water at edges of slow moving streams, edges of lakes, wet areas in bottomland and riparian forests, swamps, and swamp openings. Sometimes forming large dense populations. Forb/herb
Loesel’s twayblade Liparis loeselii Rich fens, calcareous peaty swamps, and mucky seepages. Open and forested habitats in permanently saturated soils. It often grows in mucky or peaty soils and perhaps does best where the adjacent herbaceous vegetation is sparse. Forb/herb
long beech fern Phegopteris connectilis Cool mesic hardwood, hemlock, and mixed coniferous-hardwoods forests. Forb/herb
long sedge Carex folliculata Bogs, edges of ponds and marshes, shrub swamps, and hardwood swamps. Often in strongly acidic standing water. Graminoid
Long’s sedge Carex longii Graminoid
long-beaked carpet sedge Carex lucorum Dry-mesic to mesic hardwood, coniferous, and mixed hardwood-coniferous forests, rocky-summits and ridges, and bluffs. Grows in somewhat similar habitat to C. pensylvanica but often in more acidic soils and the two rarely occur together. Graminoid
long-beaked sedge Carex sprengelii Floodplain forests, edges of rivers and streams, rich hardwood forests, and thickets. Fairly niche specific species it grows well in forests over calcareous bedrock and in floodplain forests with deep alluvium. Graminoid
long-bracted orchid, frog orchid Coeloglossum viride Rich mesic to wet-mesic forests and sometimes in seepages. Forb/herb
long-headed anemone Anemone cylindrica Forb/herb
long-leaved bluets Houstonia longifolia Dry forest openings and bluffs in thin rocky soils sometimes on calcareous soils and bedrock. Forb/herb
long-leaved bush clover Lespedeza capitata × L. hirta Forb/herb
long-leaved ground cherry Physalis longifolia var. subglabrata Forb/herb
long-leaved panic grass Coleataenia longifolia ssp. longifolia Graminoid
long-leaved pondweed Potamogeton nodosus Shallow water of ponds, lakes, and slow moving streams. Forb/herb
long-leaved starwort, long-leaved stitchwort Stellaria longifolia Forb/herb
loose-flowered sedge Carex laxiflora Hardwood forests, forest edges, and thickets. Mostly in dry to mesic but also in wet-mesic soils that range from fairly acidic to basic. Usually not in the poorest soils. Sometimes a little weedy on roads and trails but not as much as C. blanda. Graminoid
loose-headed beak sedge Rhynchospora chalarocephala Graminoid
lopseed Phryma leptostachya Mesic forests and forest edges in calcareous soils. Perhaps most common in floodplain forests. Forb/herb
low frostweed, low rock rose Crocanthemum propinquum Forb/herb
low St. John’s wort Hypericum stragulum Subshrub, Shrub
low water milfoil Myriophyllum humile Forb/herb
lowland fragile fern Cystopteris protrusa Fern
lowland loosestrife Lysimachia hybrida Forb/herb
Lowrie’s aster Symphyotrichum lowrieanum Dry rocky forested slopes, edges of forests, and occasionally fields. This species resembles S. cordifolium although it is distinct and is much less frequent than S. cordifolium. Symphyotrichum lowrieanum perhaps prefers more calcareous, drier, and more open habitats than S. cordifolium. Forb/herb
Mackay’s fragile fern Cystopteris tenuis Wet cliffs and ledges, shale and fine talus slopes, and sometimes in soil of forested slopes not associated with rocks. Fern
mad dog skullcap Scutellaria lateriflora Seeps in forests, swamps, marshes, and edges of streams. Occurs in both shaded and unshaded wet habitats. Forb/herb
maidenhair fern Adiantum pedatum Rich mesic hardwoods forests often on lower slopes and valley bottoms in deep calcareous soils. Forb/herb
maleberry Lyonia ligustrina var. ligustrina Mesic to wet acidic forests, forest edges, Sphagnum dominated peatlands, and swamps. Quite sparse in western and central New York. Shrub
many-flowered marsh pennywort Hydrocotyle umbellata Forb/herb
many-flowered rosette grass Dichanthelium polyanthes Graminoid
many-spiked flat sedge Cyperus polystachyos Herbaceous
maple-leaved viburnum Viburnum acerifolium Understories of forests, woodlands, edges of forests, forested road banks, and rocky slopes often in acidic not deep soils. A very common understory shrub in mesic acidic deciduous forests (sometimes dominated by Quercus rubra). Shrub
marginal wood fern Dryopteris marginalis Fairly common on mesic hardwood or hemlock-hardwood forested slopes in parts of New York with generally calcareous soils. It is also particularly fond of rocky forested slopes in a wide range of soil pH. Also ledges and rock outcrops. Herbaceous
marsh bedstraw Galium palustre Marshes, wet forests, wet thickets, ditches, wet dirt roadsides, swamps, openings in swamps, and stream sides. Forb/herb
marsh bellflower Campanula aparinoides Often leaning on and growing up adjacent herbaceous vegetation. Stream margins, marshes, and wet thickets. Forb/herb
marsh blue violet Viola cucullata Marshes, low areas in swamps, forested seeps, edges of small streams, and rarely in more mesic habitats. Forb/herb
marsh fern Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Marshes, rich fens, and swamps; edges of ponds, lakes, and streams; and ditches and open wet thickets. Forb/herb
marsh fimbry Fimbristylis castanea Graminoid
marsh lousewort Pedicularis lanceolata Calcareous and marly fens, forested seeps; and swamps and margins of the Hudson River upslope from tidal influences. Forb/herb
marsh marigold Caltha palustris Forest and shrub swamps, marshes, backwater sloughs of streams, rich fens, and seeps. Predominately in shallow still water with mucky soils. Sometimes forming large dense populations. Forb/herb
marsh skullcap Scutellaria galericulata Openings in swamps, marshes, and edges of ponds and streams. Forb/herb
marsh speedwell Veronica scutellata Marshes, low areas in swamps in mucky saturated to slightly inundated soils, ditches, and stream edges. Forb/herb
marsh straw sedge Carex hormathodes Maritime areas on rocks and sand often within reach of the salt spray. Graminoid
marsh vetchling Lathyrus palustris Marshes and wet thickets. Can occur in inland salt marshes. Vine, Forb/herb
marsh willowherb Epilobium palustre Forb/herb
marsh wood fern Dryopteris carthusiana × D. cristata Fern
Maryland golden aster Chrysopsis mariana Forb/herb
Maryland hawkweed Hieracium gronovii × H. venosum Forb/herb
Maryland meadow beauty Rhexia mariana var. mariana Forb/herb
Maryland sanicle, Maryland snakeroot Sanicula marilandica Rich mesic forests, alluvial forests, and occasionally hummocks in rich swamps. This is perhaps our most common Sanicula and occurs in the widest array of habitats. Forb/herb
Massachusetts fern Coryphopteris simulata Forb/herb
Mattamuskeet rosette grass Dichanthelium mattamuskeetense Graminoid
may apple Podophyllum peltatum Mesic to dry-mesic deciduous forests, thin forests, thickets, and occasionally in fields, pastures, and relatively undisturbed road sides. Herbaceous
meadow bottle gentian Gentiana clausa Wet fields primarily on hill tops, edges of forests, edges of streams, seasonally wet ditches, and thickets. Often in heavy compacted soils that are seasonally wet. Forb/herb
meadow horsetail Equisetum pratense Rich wet-mesic to mesic hardwood forests, edges of forests, and edges of streams. Primarily a plant of calcareous wet-mesic shaded habitats. Forb/herb
meadow spikemoss Selaginella apoda Rich fens, seepages, wet utility rights-of-way, wet non-shaded thickets, and stream banks. Often where the adjacent herbaceous vegetation is thin. Herbaceous
meadow willow Salix petiolaris Shrub swamps including rich shrubby fens, wet thickets, and edges of streams and lakes. Tree, Shrub
meager sedge Carex exilis Acidic sphagnum dominated bogs and poor fens. Graminoid
midday rosette grass Dichanthelium meridionale
midland sedge Carex mesochorea Graminoid
mild water pepper Persicaria hydropiperoides Marshes and edges of ponds, lakes, and streams in saturated to inundated soils. Often in natural habitats and sometimes forming large dense patches. Herbaceous
millet grass Milium effusum var. cisatlanticum Rich cool northern hardwood forests often in calcareous soils. Graminoid
Mitchell’s sedge Carex mitchelliana Graminoid
mixed cord grass Sporobolus michauxianus × S. pumilus Graminoid
mockernut hickory Carya tomentosa Mesic to dry-mesic forests of a southern affinity. Tree
moonseed Menispermum canadense Floodplain forests and thickets, and rich forests over calcareous soils or bedrock. Most abundant on valley bottoms and lower slopes. Vine, Subshrub
mosquito bulrush Scirpus hattorianus Marshes, fields, thickets, and roadside ditches. Most common in fields and disturbed sites. Does best in heavy or poorly drained soils that become seasonally saturated or slightly inundated including compacted soils of paths and dirt roads. More common in drier and more disturbed habitats than S. atrovirens. Graminoid
moss phlox Phlox subulata ssp. subulata Rims of gorges and cliffs often in thin well drained rocky soil over calcareous bedrock with the adjacent herbaceous vegetation sparse or absent. Herbaceous
mountain blue-eyed grass Sisyrinchium montanum Fields and pastures. Forb/herb
mountain fescue Festuca saximontana var. saximontana Graminoid
mountain holly Ilex mucronata Various types of acidic peat bogs, deciduous swamps, mixed coniferous-deciduous swamps, and shrub swamps. Mostly this species does not form dense thickets but occurs scattered in with a variety of other shrubs. Sometimes it can be dwarfed when in hostile bog conditions. It is more common in the northern parts of the state. Tree, Shrub
mountain laurel Kalmia latifolia Oak dominated mesic to dry forests, woodlands, rocky summits, utility rights-of-way, and occasionally acidic swamps. Primarily a species of dry Quercus montana dominated forests often in association with other ericaceous shrubs. It sometimes forms dense thickets. Very limited in central and western New York but quite common in the southeastern parts of the state. Shrub
mountain maple Acer spicatum A small understory tree of northern or cool habitats. Ravine slopes, cool swamps, northern hardwood, and mixed hardwood forests. Tree
mountain winterberry Ilex montana Tree, Shrub
mud plantain Heteranthera reniformis Forb/herb
Muhlenberg’s nut sedge Scleria muehlenbergii Graminoid
Muhlenberg’s sedge Carex muehlenbergii var. muehlenbergii Sandy and rocky graminoid dominated open habitat and edges of forests. Mostly in xeric to dry-mesic rocky or sandy soils. Graminoid
Muhlenberg’s veinless sedge Carex muehlenbergii var. enervis Fields, openings in forests, woodlands, rocky summits, and utility rights-of-way. Mostly in xeric to dry-mesic rocky or sandy soils. Graminoid
musclewood, ironwood, American hornbeam Carpinus caroliniana ssp. virginiana An understory small tree in deciduous forests. It does best in wet-mesic soils, lower parts of slopes, and stream banks. Also occurs in swamps and mesic forests. It can become a dominant understory tree in these habitats. Tree, Shrub
naked tick trefoil Hylodesmum nudiflorum Dry-mesic to mesic forests and woodlands. In acidic soils on upper slopes as well as richer deeper soils. One of the most common Desmodium species in New York. Forb/herb
nannyberry Viburnum lentago Shrub and tree swamps, marshes, roadside ditches, and wet to mesic successional fields. A common wetland shrub in at least parts of NY it sometimes occur it large shrub thickets mixed with other shrubs including V. dentatum var. lucidum and Cornus spp. It does best in wet soils but also grows in mesic or seasonally flooded areas. Tree, Shrub
Nantucket shadbush Amelanchier nantucketensis Shrub
narrow-leaved blue-eyed grass Sisyrinchium angustifolium Fields, pastures, thickets, successional shrub lands, and occasionally gaps and openings in forests. Mostly in fields in unshaded habitats. Herbaceous
narrow-leaved bur-reed Sparganium angustifolium Forb/herb
narrow-leaved bush clover Lespedeza angustifolia Forb/herb
narrow-leaved cattail Typha angustifolia Brackish and fresh tidal and non-tidal marshes, ditches, pond and lake edges, openings in swamps, and wet thickets. Although the prominent cattail of saline areas it is also widespread in non-saline habitats. Forb/herb
narrow-leaved gentian Gentiana linearis Roadsides, thickets, edges of forests, and utility rights-of-way often in seasonally wet acidic soils. Much more common in the northern parts of New York where it can be quite abundant in places. Forb/herb
narrow-leaved mountain mint Pycnanthemum tenuifolium Rocky summits, thickets, fields, roadsides, and railroad edges in dry to seasonally wet soils. Forb/herb
narrow-leaved pinweed Lechea tenuifolia In cracks in rock outcrops, and openings in rocky summits. In a very particular limited niche. Often with Polygonum tenue. Forb/herb
narrow-leaved prickly bog sedge Carex atlantica ssp. capillacea Bogs and edges of acidic swamps. Similar to ssp. atlantica in its preference for acidic sites. Graminoid
narrow-leaved upland star sedge Carex radiata Rich forests, alluvial forests, and occasionally on the edges of swamps. Grows in mesic to seasonally wet soils. Graminoid
narrow-leaved vervain Verbena simplex Forb/herb
narrow-leaved white-topped aster Sericocarpus linifolius Forb/herb
narrow-leaved willowherb Epilobium leptophyllum Marshes, openings in swamps, rich fens, and seepage areas. Usually populations are quite small. Forb/herb
narrow-panicled rush Juncus brevicaudatus Edges of streams, wet ditches, marshes, and various other wet to seasonally wet habitats. Graminoid
necklace sedge Carex projecta Seeps in forests, swamps, edges of small streams, and seepy more open wetlands. It does particularly well in seepage areas. More common in the northern and cooler parts of the state. Herbaceous
neglected bush clover Lespedeza stuevei × L. virginica Forb/herb
netted chain fern Lorinseria areolata Swamps and wet thickets confined to coastal regions of NY. Forb/herb
New England aster Symphyotrichum novae-angliae Successional fields, roadsides, and waste places. Frequently in dry to mesic sites and less frequently in wetter soils. Herbaceous
New England blazing star Liatris scariosa var. novae-angliae Open woodlands and barrens. Forb/herb
New England bulrush Bolboschoenus novae-angliae Herbaceous
New England grape Vitis labrusca × V. riparia Vine
New England snailseed pondweed Potamogeton bicupulatus Shallow water of lakes and slow moving streams. Forb/herb
New Jersey tea Ceanothus americanus Edges of hardwoods forests, openings in forests, exposed rims of cliffs, utility rights-of-way, and roadside banks in dry-mesic thin often rocky or sandy circumneutral to calcareous soils. Subshrub, Shrub
New York fern Amauropelta noveboracensis Mesic to dry-mesic forests and forest edges. Forming extensive dense populations along with Dennstaedtia punctilobula in sterile soils. Forb/herb
New York ironweed Vernonia noveboracensis Wet successional fields, stream banks, and wet forests. Fairly limited in distribution in NY and with us, usually not forming large stands. Herbaceous
nimble Will Muhlenbergia schreberi Lawns, various types of fields, roadsides, trails and dirt roads through forests, and disturbed sites. Graminoid
ninebark Physocarpus opulifolius River banks, thickets in valley bottoms, and rock outcrops. Shrub
nodding fescue Festuca subverticillata Rich mesic to dry-mesic hardwood forests often with calcareous soils. Graminoid
nodding ladies’ tresses Spiranthes cernua Herbaceous
nodding sedge Carex gynandra Marshes, wet forests, swamps, seeps, and roadside ditches. Perhaps a little more weedy and abundant in acidic soils in the northern parts of New York than the closely related C. crinita var. crinita. Graminoid
nodding trillium Trillium cernuum Forb/herb
northern adder’s tongue Ophioglossum pusillum Springy open wet habitats including wet fields, banks of streams, and wet open road banks. Not a weedy species but growing in open habitats that sometimes have experienced past disturbances. Forb/herb
northern blue violet Viola septentrionalis Mesic to dry-mesic hardwood forests and forest edges. Generally on mid to upper slopes or tops of hills. In drier less rich habitats than Viola sororia. Forb/herb
northern bog aster Symphyotrichum boreale Forb/herb
northern bog clubmoss Lycopodiella inundata Bogs, edges of ponds, and logging and dirt roads often on mosses or in peaty, sandy, or coarse soils. The most common Lycopodiella in New York. Subshrub, Shrub
northern bugleweed, northern water horehound Lycopus uniflorus Marshes, swamps, damp shores, ditches, and elsewhere. Common in a large variety of wetlands. Forb/herb
northern dewberry Rubus flagellaris Roadsides, edges of railroads, talus slopes, forest openings, open rocky summits, and bluffs. Shrub
northern downy violet Viola sagittata var. ovata Successional fields, utility rights-of-way, gravel and sand mines, roadsides, woodlands, forest openings, thin canopied forests, and disturbed areas in forests in thin well drained dry to dry-mesic to occasionally mesic soils. Forb/herb
northern gooseberry Ribes hirtellum Open and shrubby rich fens and rich swamps. Shrub
northern hackberry Celtis occidentalis Bottomland forests, rocky slopes, talus slopes, and rock outcrops on mesic to dry calcareous bedrock or soils. Tree, Shrub
northern lady fern Athyrium angustum The more common of the two subspecies in New York. Hardwood or hardwood-coniferous forests, margins of streams, wet depressions in forests, and occasionally edges of forests. Primarily and understory herb that likes mesic to wet-mesic soils and usually does not occur in soils that are perennially saturated. Fern
northern oat grass Danthonia compressa Edges of woodland roads and paths, openings in forests, often in thin acidic soils. Graminoid
northern obedient plant Physostegia virginiana ssp. virginiana Cultivated and most wild populations probably represent introductions. Damp fields, ditches, and roadsides. Forb/herb
northern pipewort, northern hatpins Eriocaulon aquaticum Emergent from edges of acidic lakes. Often in sandy or coarse soils. Forb/herb
northern red oak Quercus rubra The most widespread oak species in New York. Dry to mesic forests in a variety of soil types. It occurs in the coolest climates of any species of oak in New York as well as in warmer more southern forest types. Tree
northern reed grass Calamagrostis stricta ssp. inexpansa Graminoid
northern rosette grass Dichanthelium boreale Graminoid
northern seaside goldenrod Solidago sempervirens Coastal dunes, edges of salt marshes, and other maritime habitats. It also occurs inland along large road sides and thickets near salt processing areas. It is spreading in these inland habitats. Forb/herb
northern shorthusk Brachyelytrum aristosum Mesic hardwood forests often in cooler and more northern sites than B. erectum. Graminoid
northern slender ladies’ tresses Spiranthes lacera var. lacera Forb/herb
northern snailseed pondweed Potamogeton spirillus Shallow water of ponds, lakes, and slow moving streams sometimes becoming stranded when water levels drop. Forb/herb
northern St. John’s wort Hypericum boreale Forb/herb
northern sundrops Oenothera fruticosa ssp. tetragona Forb/herb
northern swamp buttercup, northern swamp crowfoot Ranunculus caricetorum Swamps, rich fens, marshes, wet thickets, and edges of lakes in inundated to saturated mucky soils. Forb/herb
northern sweetbay Magnolia virginiana var. virginiana Swamps, wet woods, edges of lakes, ponds, and streams sometimes associated with sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua). Tree, Shrub
northern three-petaled bedstraw Galium trifidum ssp. trifidum Cool swamps, openings in swamps, marshes, and wetland edges. Vine, Forb/herb
northern tickle grass Agrostis scabra Floating logs and vegetation mats in ponds, edges of marshes on exposed soils, shale and fine talus slopes in woodlands or openings, and roadsides. Occurs in saturated to dry soils and appears to do best in open soils in full sun. Graminoid
northern tubercled orchid Platanthera flava var. herbiola Forb/herb
northern water plantain Alisma triviale This species along with A. subcordatum are very similar in terms of their habitat preferences and we have not detected a difference in habitat types. Edges of streams, rivers, ponds, and marshes; and seasonally flooded ponds. This species does quite well on seasonally exposed “draw down” zones on edges of marshes, ponds, and streams. Forb/herb
northern white cedar, arbor vitae Thuja occidentalis Calcareous cliffs and ledges, rocky summits, alvars, fens, and rich swamps. Grows in both xeric and wet, often cool sites. Mostly confined to calcareous soils and bedrock. In northern and cooler parts of New York it become less of a calciphile. In swamps it can from dense impenetrable stands. Tree
northern wild raisin Viburnum cassinoides Shrub and tree swamps, marshes, edges of ponds, and wet thickets. Similar habitat to V. lentago but generally less common, not as weedy, and more restricted to wetlands. Tree, Shrub
northern wild senna Senna hebecarpa Edge of forests, thickets, roadsides, and disturbed soils. Forb/herb
Nuttall’s lobelia Lobelia nuttallii Forb/herb
Nuttall’s waterweed Elodea nuttallii Quiet acidic waters of lakes, ponds, and streams. Forb/herb
oak fern Gymnocarpium dryopteris Cool hardwood, coniferous, and mixed hardwood-coniferous forests. Also hummocks in swamps and edges of streams. More common in the northern and cooler parts of New York. Fern
oakdrops Conopholis americana In a variety of mesic forests under Quercus species. Forb/herb
Oakes’s evening primrose Oenothera oakesiana Forb/herb
Oakes’s pondweed Potamogeton oakesianus Forb/herb
oblong bush clover Lespedeza angustifolia × L. hirta
oblong-fruited pinweed Lechea racemulosa Edges of forests, woodlands, utility rights-of-way, and gravel pits. Often in thin soils. Forb/herb
oldfield cinquefoil Potentilla simplex Successional fields, pastures, hayfields, roadsides, forests (primarily young successional), forests openings, edges of paths through forests, rocky summits, and rock outcrops. Forb/herb
olive-fruited spike rush Eleocharis flavescens var. olivacea Floating vegetation mats and peaty swamps. Characteristically found on exposed soils of floating vegetation. Graminoid
one-flowered hawthorn Crataegus uniflora Tree, Shrub
Oneida grape fern, blunt-lobed grape fern Botrychium oneidense Rich low mesic forests. Forb/herb
one-sided wintergreen Orthilia secunda Dry to mesic or occasionally wetter acidic northern forests often with Pinus strobus and thin soils. Subshrub, Shrub
orange crested orchid Platanthera cristata Forb/herb
orange fringed orchid Platanthera ciliaris Forb/herb
orange-fruited horse gentian Triosteum aurantiacum Rich forests, edges of forests, stream sides, and thickets often in deep and/or calcareous soils. The soils vary from mesic to dry. Plants are usually not present throughout a site but are more restricted to a few dense patches. Forb/herb
Oswego tea, beebalm Monarda didyma Forested seeps, stream banks, alluvial forests, and wet thickets. Forb/herb
oval-headed sedge Carex cephalophora Forests, woodlands, rocky summits, and rarely fields. On upper slopes and summits. Usually in areas with some tree canopy although it occasionally occurs in open habitats. Mostly in dry to mesic rocky or thin soils often with thin adjacent herbaceous vegetation. Graminoid
ovate spike rush Eleocharis ovata Herbaceous
pagoda dogwood, alternate-leaved dogwood Cornus alternifolia Understories of mesic, usually somewhat rich forests. Tree, Shrub
paired-flowered bindweed Calystegia silvatica ssp. fraterniflora Vine
pale beak sedge Rhynchospora pallida Graminoid
pale beardtongue Penstemon pallidus Forb/herb
pale dock Rumex altissimus Forb/herb
pale duckweed Lemna valdiviana Forb/herb
pale false manna grass Torreyochloa pallida var. pallida Graminoid
pale sedge Carex pallescens hayfields, successional fields, pastures, native grasslands, thickets, edges of forests, and utility rights-of-way. Can be very common in fields and open habitats. Graminoid
pale St. John’s wort Hypericum ellipticum Various wetlands without trees or shrubs and usually without adjacent tall and dense herbaceous vegetation. Springy edges of wetlands including springy roadsides Forb/herb
pale wild bergamot Monarda fistulosa var. mollis Herbaceous
panicled hawkweed Hieracium paniculatum Deciduous, often thin, forests and edges of forests on dry to mesic slopes. The adjacent herbaceous vegetation is usually not dense or tall. Forb/herb
panicled tick trefoil Desmodium paniculatum Edges of forests, edges of paths and roads through forests, and thickets. Usually in dry to dry-mesic soils. Forb/herb
paper birch Betula papyrifera A tree of thin poor soils, talus and rocky slopes, and edges of forests and woodlands. In mesic forests it is an early successional species starting in forest clearings, after fire, or logging. Most common at higher elevations and in the northern parts of NY. It can co-occur with B. cordifolia but usually drops out at the highest elevations. Tree
parasol sedge, umbelled sedge Carex umbellata Dry-to mesic hardwood forests, forested edges, woodlands, fields, rocky summits and mountain ridges, rock outcrops, bluffs, shale and fine talus slopes, dirt roads, road banks, paths, and utility rights-of-way. Is especially fond of slightly disturbed areas through open dry-mesic forests. Graminoid
partridge berry Mitchella repens Tsuga canadensis dominated forests with sparse herbaceous vegetation; other mesic forest types; and coastal oak forests in dry-mesic to mesic sandy soils. Herbaceous
path rush Juncus tenuis Paths, roadsides, and fields. Very common in heavily compacted wet to dry soils of paths. Graminoid
peach-leaved willow Salix amygdaloides Edges of lakes, floodplain forests, and streamsides. Tree, Shrub
pearly everlasting Anaphalis margaritacea Much more common in northern parts of the state. Cut forests, edges of forests, roadsides, and successional old fields often in thin sterile soils. Forb/herb
pectinate violet Viola pectinata
pencil flower Stylosanthes biflora Forb/herb
pendulous bulrush Scirpus pendulus Wet fields, roadsides ditches, and disturbed wet-mesic soils. Mostly in association with calcareous soils. Usually in only seasonally saturated or inundated soils. Graminoid
Pennsylvania blackberry Rubus pensilvanicus Roadsides, forest edges, successional fields, and pastures. Shrub
Pennsylvania sedge Carex pensylvanica Dry-mesic to mesic hardwood forests, rocky summits, rocky slopes, shale and fine talus slopes, bluffs, and barrens. Usually not in the most acidic poor soils. In at least slightly more mineral rich soils than C. lucorum and the two taxa rarely occur together. Often forming extensive “lawns” in somewhat open oak and hickory dominated forests on middle slopes, upper slopes, and crests. Graminoid
perennial glasswort Salicornia ambigua Upper edges of salt marshes and adjacent maritime areas. Growing in dense patches. Herbaceous
perennial saltmarsh aster Symphyotrichum tenuifolium var. tenuifolium Forb/herb
perennial woolly bean Strophostyles umbellata Vine, Forb/herb
perfoliate bellwort Uvularia perfoliata Forests, woodlands, and bluffs in dry to dry-mesic often rocky soils with oaks dominant Forb/herb
perfoliate-leaved horse gentian Triosteum perfoliatum Forb/herb
persimmon Diospyros virginiana Tree
pickerel weed Pontederia cordata In standing water at edges of ponds, lakes, and slow-moving streams. Forb/herb
Pickering’s reed grass Calamagrostis pickeringii Graminoid
pignut hickory Carya glabra Rocky summits, woodlands, and dry to mesic forests of a southern affinity. Mostly in dry rocky sites and when abundant perhaps indicating that the soils are calcareous or not very acidic. Tree
pin cherry, fire cherry Prunus pensylvanica Edges of forests, successional forests, logged areas, burned areas, forest openings, rocky summits, rock outcrops, cliffs, ledges, and bluffs. Tree
pin oak Quercus palustris Cultivated as well as native. It occurs primarily in small acidic swamps and forested depressions. Tree
pine barrens death camas Stenanthium leimanthoides Forb/herb
pine barrens sandwort Mononeuria caroliniana Forb/herb
pink coreopsis, pink tickseed Coreopsis rosea The native habitat is along the shores of coastal plain ponds. Due to this plant’s popularity in the horticultural trade, it may also be found in gardens and escaping into nearby habitats. Forb/herb
pink lady’s slipper Cypripedium acaule Acidic mesic to dry-mesic forests often with pine or hemlock. Usually in areas where the adjacent herbaceous layer is sparse. Sometimes on roadsides and young successional forests. Populations size and density varies considerably. Often on hilltops and upper slopes but not restricted to these sites. Forb/herb
pink shinleaf Pyrola asarifolia ssp. asarifolia Rich calcareous swamps and fens, cool wet-mesic to mesic hardwood and hardwood-coniferous forests, forest edges, and edges of streams in forests. Probably not as rare as previously believed this species is perhaps overlooked when growing in cool northern mesic forests. Subshrub, Shrub
pinxter flower Rhododendron periclymenoides Shrub
pipsissewa Chimaphila umbellata Dry sandy forests, edges of forests, and roadsides with thin sandy soils. A plant of acidic sites. Subshrub, Shrub
pitch pine Pinus rigida Common in pine barrens on deep sandy soils with a frequent fire regime. Also on dry rocky soils or thin soils over bedrock on hilltops, bluffs, crests, and steep south and west facing slopes. Tree
plantain-leaved pussytoes Antennaria plantaginifolia Thin or open deciduous forests, edges of forests, woodlands, rocky summits, road banks, and successional fields. In mesic to dry soils that are thin or where the herbaceous vegetation is not tall or dense. Herbaceous
pointed broom sedge Carex scoparia One of the most common section Ovales sedges. Wet to dry fields, marshes, roadsides, stream and pond edges, and wet depressions. Grows in both acidic and somewhat calcareous soils. Graminoid
pointed-leaved tick trefoil Hylodesmum glutinosum Dry-mesic to mesic, slightly rich, hardwood forests. Often on mid to upper slopes. Usually never too abundant at a site but it is one of the most widespread Desmodium species in New York. Forb/herb
poison sumac Toxicodendron vernix Swamps, calcareous marshes, and rich fens. Although it does occur in swamps it does best in opening in swamps or where the canopy is not too dense. It is mostly restricted to calcareous wet sites. Tree, Shrub
pokeweed Phytolacca americana var. americana Tree fall gaps in forests, thickets, roadsides, and disturbed soils in native and non-native sites. Forb/herb
porcupine sedge Carex hystericina Marshes, rich fens, edges of ponds and streams, wet fields, and opening in swamps. A relatively frequent species in high pH open wet sites. Graminoid
post oak Quercus stellata Tree
poverty grass Danthonia spicata Forest edges, thin canopied forest, and primarily open habitats including the rims of rock outcrops and cliffs with thin rocky or gravelly soils often where the adjacent herbaceous vegetation is not dense or tall. Graminoid
poverty rosette grass Dichanthelium depauperatum Open or partly open habitats with dry thin or well-drained sandy to rocky soils often with adjacent herbaceous vegetation thin including roadsides, barrens, rocky summits, and disturbed sites. Graminoid
prairie cord grass Sporobolus michauxianus Upper edges of salt marshes, ice and river scour shores, exposed gravel bars in rivers, fresh water marshes, and lake shores. Graminoid
prairie wedge grass Sphenopholis obtusata Graminoid
prairie willow, upland willow Salix humilis var. humilis Forest edges, forest openings, occasionally in thin forests, successional fields, utility rights-of-way, ditches, and perhaps sparsely in wetlands. Shrub
prickly ash Zanthoxylum americanum Wet thickets, low and floodplain mesic forests, streamside thickets, thin soils over limestone and calcareous bedrock, and other calcareous habitats both wet and dry. Tree, Shrub
prickly tree clubmoss, northern tree clubmoss Dendrolycopodium dendroideum A wide variety of mesic forests and forest opening including forested roadsides. Of the three Dendrolycopodium species, this one appears to be most common in more northern forest types. Appears to do best in successional forests or sites with recent disturbances. Herbaceous
primrose-leaved violet Viola primulifolia var. primulifolia Forb/herb
Pringle’s aster Symphyotrichum pilosum var. pringlei Dry successional fields, utility line cuts, edges of forested areas, and roadsides. Compared to the typical variety, var. pringlei grows in drier sites with less herbaceous competition, and more often is in more native type habitats. Forb/herb
pubescent sedge Carex hirtifolia Thickets, edges of forests, and rich hardwood forests. An odd species in terms of its habitat preferences. It can be quite weedy and abundant at sites but primarily in upland rich thickets. It general does not occur in open habitats and is less frequent in fully mature forests. Graminoid
purple chokeberry Aronia prunifolia Tree, Shrub
purple cudweed Gamochaeta purpurea Forb/herb
purple giant hyssop, figwort giant hyssop Agastache scrophulariifolia Herbaceous
purple Joe Pye weed Eutrochium purpureum var. purpureum Dry-mesic to mesic forests and woodlands, edges of these habitats, and non-weedy open banks and slopes. Forb/herb
purple love grass Eragrostis spectabilis Railroad edges, roadsides, fields with thin sandy soils, and waste places. Graminoid
purple milkweed Asclepias purpurascens Small meadows or edges of forests in mesic to slightly wetter soils. Herbaceous
purple pitcherplant Sarracenia purpurea Acidic to alkaline peatlands. Herbaceous
purple trillium, stinking Benjamin Trillium erectum Mesic hardwood and hardwood-coniferous forests. Occurs in a wide variety of forested habitats although it is absent from the warmer drier more open sites. Forb/herb
purple-flowering raspberry Rubus odoratus Forest edges, talus slopes, mesic rocky outcrops, disturbed soils in forests, and thickets. Generally in wet-mesic or sometimes mesic soils and often in at least partly shaded habitats. Shrub
purple-stemmed angelica Angelica atropurpurea Banks of streams and rivers, marshes, and open swamps. This species prefers rich sites and often occurs near or adjacent to streams. Forb/herb
purple-stemmed aster Symphyotrichum puniceum var. puniceum Swamps, marshes, fens, wet thickets, stream banks, and ditches. A common aster of various wetland types and usually not too weedy. Forb/herb
purpletop Tridens flavus var. flavus Roadsides, sandy successional fields, gravel pits, and openings in forests in dry to dry-mesic sandy or gravely soils. Graminoid
pussy willow Salix discolor Swamps, rich fens, wet thickets, wet successional fields, roadsides, ditches, marshes, vernal pools, and edges of lakes and streams. Tree, Shrub
Pylaie’s rush Juncus pylaei Edges of ponds and streams, wet fields, marshes, openings in swamps, ditches, and swales. Occurs in a wide variety of open wet to seasonally wet habitats. Habitat differences between var. pylaei and var. solutus are not clear. Graminoid
pyxies, pyxie moss Pyxidanthera barbulata Herbaceous
quill-leaved arrowhead Sagittaria teres Forb/herb
ragged fringed orchid Platanthera lacera Wet fields and pastures and springy mucky herb dominated openings in swamps. Forb/herb
ragged thoroughwort Eupatorium pilosum Forb/herb
rattlesnake fern Botrychium virginianum Rich mesic hardwood forests. Forb/herb
rattlesnake hawkweed Hieracium venosum Dry-mesic to dry thin forests to woodlands often on slopes. Sometimes it occurs on the edges of forests or woodlands but it is really more of an understory plant. The adjacent herbaceous vegetation is often low and not dense. Forb/herb
rattlesnake manna grass Glyceria canadensis Marshes, edges of ponds, and swamps. Predominately in saturated to slightly inundated soils. Graminoid
red baneberry Actaea rubra Mesic to dry-mesic forests. Often in at least slightly rich soils. Herbaceous
red chokeberry Aronia arbutifolia Swamps, marshes, wet thickets, lake edges, and peatlands. Tree, Shrub
red milkweed Asclepias rubra Forb/herb
red mulberry Morus rubra Fairly local and populations are often small. Rich dry to dry-mesic forests often on calcareous bedrock or soils. Not weedy like M. alba. Tree
red pine Pinus resinosa Cultivated, planted in large plantations, and native. In central and western New York it occurs on steep south and west facing slopes and bluffs in dry rocky soils. In other parts of New York it occurs primarily on deep sandy soils or in pine barrens. Tree
red pondweed Potamogeton alpinus Forb/herb
red spruce Picea rubens A component of northern mixed coniferous-hardwood forests with Betula alleghaniensis, Fagus grandifolia, and Acer saccharum. In northern and cool areas it usually grows in thin mesic soils dropping out in the richer deeper soils where hardwoods dominant. Ascends to high elevation sites and also occurs occasionally near or in wetlands especially in the warmer and more southern parts of New York where it is a rare species. Tree
red-footed spike rush Eleocharis erythropoda Shores of streams, rivers, ponds, and lakes; rich fens; and floating logs at edges of ponds. Graminoid
red-osier dogwood Cornus sericea Shrub swamps, fens, marshes, and edges of ponds and streams often in calcareous soils but not restricted to these soils. Tree, Shrub
red-topped panic grass Coleataenia rigidula ssp. rigidula Edges of ponds, stream edges, and river and ice scour meadows in at least seasonally saturated soils. Graminoid
reed canary grass Phalaris arundinacea Marshes, ditches, wet successional fields, wet hayfields, edges of ponds, stream banks, and openings in swamps. This species appears to do extremely well in areas with nutrient rich run off and often occurs in large dense populations. Graminoid
reflexed flat sedge Cyperus retrorsus Graminoid
ribbed sedge Carex virescens Grows in similar habitats to the closely related C. swanii but is less common than the latter. Dry-mesic to mesic forests often of a southern affinity; ravine crests; and dirt roads through forests. Occurs primarily on upper slopes and crests. Graminoid
ribbon-leaved pondweed Potamogeton epihydrus Shallow water of lakes and streams. Forb/herb
rice cut grass Leersia oryzoides Marshes, swamps, and low wet thickets. Growing in wetter often more open sites than the related Leersia virginica. Graminoid
rigid tick trefoil Desmodium obtusum Forb/herb
rigid yellow flax Linum striatum Herbaceous
river birch Betula nigra Riverbanks and low wet areas. Also commonly cultivated. With us primarily in southeastern NY. Tree
river bulrush Bolboschoenus fluviatilis Marshes, openings in swamps, edges of ponds and streams, fresh tidal marshes, and inland salt marshes and ponds. Often in large extensive marshes and mostly not associated with saline or brackish water. Sometimes occurring in large stands but more frequently occurring as small patches. Patches are often comprised predominately of vegetative individuals with only a few or no reproductive culms present. Graminoid
river grape, frost grape Vitis riparia Hardwood forests, forest edges and openings, thickets, disturbed sites, and rocky open slopes. Vine
river horsetail Equisetum fluviatile Usually emergent from shallow water at edges of quite lakes and ponds, ditches, and marshes. Forb/herb
riverweed, threadfoot Podostemum ceratophyllum Forb/herb
roadside agrimony Agrimonia striata Pastures, successional fields, thickets, floodplain forests, successional and weedy forests, stream banks, and roadsides often in mesic to wet-mesic disturbed soils. Forb/herb
Robbins’s pondweed, fern pondweed Potamogeton robbinsii Shallow water of lakes and slow moving streams. Forb/herb
Robbins’s spike rush Eleocharis robbinsii Floating and emergent in streams and edges of lakes. Graminoid
Robin’s plantain Erigeron pulchellus var. pulchellus Rich deciduous forests, edges of forests, thin open forests, sometimes on road banks, and other open habitats. Generally doing best where the herbaceous layer is not tall. Clonal and forming patches. Herbaceous
rock elm Ulmus thomasii Rocky ridges and summits, rock outcrops, cracks and thin soils over bedrock, and woodlands. Primarily in dry soils over calcareous bedrock. Tree
rock harlequin, pink corydalis Capnoides sempervirens Cracks in rock outcrops and soils adjacent to exposed bedrock on rocky summits, cliffs, ledges, and woodlands. Primarily on acidic rocks in open exposed habitats but sometimes in more shaded rocky sites. Herbaceous
rock muhly Muhlenbergia sobolifera Dry-mesic forested sites of a southern affinity often in rocky soils. Graminoid
rock spikemoss Selaginella rupestris Dry rock outcrops, ledges, and thin soil over bedrock. Herbaceous
rose pogonia Pogonia ophioglossoides Peaty open wetlands including rich fens and acidic bogs. Perhaps more common in acidic bogs. It also grows adjacent to these habitats in disturbed upland soils including along abandoned railroad grades. Forb/herb
rough aster Eurybia radula Forb/herb
rough avens Geum laciniatum Successional fields, pastures, wet thickets, wet disturbed soils, edges of dirt roads, and marshes Generally grows in non-shaded habitats with wet soils but sometimes occurs in more mesic soils. Populations are often small in number and individual plants are widely spaced. Forb/herb
rough bedstraw Galium asprellum Marshes, swamps, wet thickets, stream sides, and pond edges. Forb/herb
rough cotton grass Eriophorum tenellum Peaty wetlands including bogs. Graminoid
rough dropseed Sporobolus compositus var. compositus Herbaceous
rough goldenrod Solidago rugosa × S. sempervirens Herbaceous
rough pennyroyal Hedeoma hispida Forb/herb
rough sedge Carex scabrata Forested seeps, wet areas in forests, and edges of very small streams. It also occasionally occurs in other wetland habitats. This species occurs predominately in the very specific niche of mucky seepage areas in hardwood forests or Thuja occidentalis swamps. It often fills the entire seepage area with evenly spaced culms via its long rhizomes. Graminoid
rough sunflower Helianthus strumosus Forb/herb
rough-leaved goldenrod Solidago patula Rich swamps, fens, seepage areas in forests, and marshes. Restricted to saturated or seasonally inundated soils. It does best in rich more open environments but also occurs in fairly well shaded swamps. Forb/herb
round-fruited rosette grass Dichanthelium sphaerocarpon Graminoid
round-fruited sedge Carex brevior Rocky summits, bluffs, open forests with outcrops of bedrock, woodlands, native grasslands, roadsides, gravel and sand pits, disturbed soils, and utility rights-of-way. Mostly in very dry rocky or coarse grained soils. It does very well in calcareous soils and occurs rarely in the most acidic environments. Graminoid
round-headed bush clover Lespedeza capitata Pine barrens, woodlands, dry fields, edges of forests, railroad edges, and utility rights-of-way. In dry to dry-mesic acidic sandy or coarse soils. Less common in central and western New York. Forb/herb
round-leaved dogwood Cornus rugosa Bluffs, rocky slopes, and talus as an understory shrub in woodlands and forests. Usually somewhat restricted in distribution at a site and preferring the specific niches listed. Tree, Shrub
round-leaved shadbush Amelanchier sanguinea Bluffs, tops of cliffs and rock outcrops, ledges, and roadsides in thin dry to dry-mesic often rocky soils. Tree, Shrub
round-leaved shinleaf Pyrola americana Hardwood or pine-hardwood forests with dry to mesic acidic sandy or coarse soils and sandy roadsides. Fairly common in sandy forests on Long Island. Subshrub, Shrub
round-leaved sundew Drosera rotundifolia Rich fens, acidic bogs, open peaty wetlands, floating logs, and wet springy roadsides. Does well in open sites with low adjacent herbaceous vegetation. Sometimes on edges of shrub hummocks in open wetlands. Usually not in areas with much of a tree canopy. Forb/herb
round-leaved thoroughwort Eupatorium rotundifolium Forb/herb
round-leaved tick trefoil Desmodium rotundifolium Thin dry-mesic oak-hickory or oak dominated forests, edges of paths through forests, and bluffs. Usually not very abundant at a site. Forb/herb
round-lobed hepatica Hepatica americana Dry-mesic to mesic forests and forest edges in alkaline to circumneutral soils. When co-occurring with Hepatica acutiloba it often occurs higher on slopes in shallower drier soils. Forb/herb
royal fern Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis Swamps and stream edges it sometimes grows in inundated soils. Forb/herb
Rudge’s sedge Carex debilis var. rudgei Hardwood and mixed hardwood-coniferous forests, forest edges, openings in forests, and edges of streams. It appears to have an affinity for edges of very small streams in forested sites although it also occurs in other habitats as noted above. Graminoid
rue anemone Thalictrum thalictroides Hardwood forests, forest edges, openings in forests, edges of forested dirt roads on mid to upper slopes and usually in thin dry-mesic coarse grained or rocky circumneutral to calcareous soils. Forb/herb
Rugel’s plantain Plantago rugelii Fields, pastures, lawns, roadsides, and disturbed soils. Forb/herb
Sago pondweed Stuckenia pectinata Shallow water of ponds, lakes and slow moving streams. Forb/herb
sallow sedge Carex lurida Marshes, openings in swamps, ditches and swales, wet fields, edges of streams and ponds, peaty acidic wetlands, and occasionally in calcareous wet habitats. A very common species that occurs in a wide variety of wetland sites that are mostly open and often acidic although it can occasionally be found in more basic sites. Graminoid
salt grass Distichlis spicata Salt and brackish marshes. Sometimes occurring in monospecific dense stands. Herbaceous
salt-loving spike rush Eleocharis parvula Brackish marshes and pond edges including inland salt marshes. Herbaceous
saltmarsh elder Iva frutescens Coastal salt marshes. Subshrub, Shrub
saltmarsh loosestrife Lythrum lineare Forb/herb
saltmarsh mallow Kosteletzkya pentacarpos var. pentacarpos Shrub
saltmarsh water hemp Amaranthus cannabinus Brackish and fresh water tidal marshes. This species usually occurs upslope from mud flats in denser taller herbaceous dominated tidal marshes. Forb/herb
salt-meadow cord grass Sporobolus pumilus Salt and brackish marshes including shrubby brackish areas. This species often form large dense monospecific stands. Graminoid
sand bead grass Paspalum setaceum var. psammophilum Graminoid
sand blackberry Rubus cuneifolius Shrub
sand dropseed Sporobolus cryptandrus Graminoid
sandplain wild flax, Bicknell’s yellow flax Linum intercursum Forb/herb
sassafras Sassafras albidum Mesic to dry forests, edges of forests, woodlands, talus slopes, bluffs, sand dunes, dry stream banks, pastures, hedge rows, successional fields, and road banks. Often in sandy or gravely soils. Tree
Saul’s oak Quercus alba × Q. montana Tree
scarlet oak Quercus coccinea Dry to dry-mesic forests and woodlands. Predominately on very dry ridges, hilltops, crests, and upper slopes. Perhaps a fire dependent species it can often form dense monospecific stands, and sometimes in the driest situations, the trees appear dwarfed. Tree
scarlet smartweed Persicaria coccinea
Schreber’s aster Eurybia schreberi Dry-mesic to mesic forests and woodlands particularly on the edges of these habitats, non-weedy open road banks, and occasionally on stream banks. Forb/herb
Scotch lovage Ligusticum scoticum ssp. scoticum Herbaceous
Scribner’s rosette grass Dichanthelium oligosanthes ssp. scribnerianum Graminoid
scrub oak, bear oak Quercus ilicifolia Pine and other barrens, rocky summits, openings in woodlands, and utility rights-of way. Often on upper slopes, crests, and hilltops in dry acidic thin, sandy, or rocky soils. Tree
sea arrow grass Triglochin maritima Coastal salt marshes, rich fens, calcareous marshes, and openings in rich peaty swamps. Forb/herb
sea lavender Limonium carolinianum Coastal salt marshes. Forb/herb
seabeach knotweed Polygonum glaucum Restricted to the beaches of Long Island. Herbaceous
seabeach orach Atriplex mucronata Upper edges of salt marshes and adjacent sandy maritime areas. Forb/herb
seabeach sandwort Honckenya peploides ssp. robusta Sandy beaches and maritime areas. Forb/herb
sea-coast angelica Angelica lucida Coastal. Open meadows and edges of forests often in sand. Forb/herb
seacoast bulrush Bolboschoenus robustus Coastal salt marshes. Herbaceous
seaside buttercup, seaside crowfoot Ranunculus cymbalaria Upper edge of brackish and salt marshes including inland salt marshes. Forb/herb
seaside plantain Plantago maritima var. juncoides Maritime salt marshes and coastal beaches. Forb/herb
secund rush Juncus secundus Rocky summits and open dry exposed graminoid dominated hill tops in acidic soils. Graminoid
sedge rush Juncus scirpoides var. scirpoides Herbaceous
sensitive fern Onoclea sensibilis Wet forests, swamps, seepage areas, marshes, and wet fields. A somewhat weedy species that grows in a wide variety of at least seasonally wet habitats. In the northern and cooler parts of New York it is perhaps a little more restricted to rich seepage areas. Fern
shagbark hickory Carya ovata var. ovata Of the hickories that occur in New York, Carya ovata grows in the widest range of forested habitats. It occurs with C. glabra in dry to mesic warm forests of a southern affinity, with C. cordiformis in low bottomland forests, as well as in rich mesic forests, dry calcareous forests, and sometimes on hummocks in swamps. Tree
sharp-angled spike rush Eleocharis tenuis var. pseudoptera Graminoid
sharp-fruited rush Juncus acuminatus Marshes, wet depressions, emergent on edges of ponds and lakes, edges of streams, and ditches. Occurs in a wide variety of wet to at least seasonally wet mostly open habitats. Graminoid
sharp-tipped blue-eyed grass Sisyrinchium mucronatum Pastures and fields sometimes somewhat seasonally wet. Perhaps more common than records indicate. Herbaceous
shaved sedge Carex tonsa Rocky summits, open shale and fine talus slopes, rock outcrops, sandy open areas, summits, gravel pits, woodlands and dry forests, and roadsides. Generally in very open xeric habitats but also occasionally occurring under some tree canopy. Seemingly very distinct from C. tonsa var. rugosperma but variability in individual plants obscures some of the distinctions between these two taxa. Perhaps the two are worthy of species status but more research is needed. Graminoid
sheep laurel, sheepkill Kalmia angustifolia var. angustifolia Sub-alpine forests, wet acidic peatlands, and dry sandy forests and forest edges. Primarily a species of acidic soils it grows in dry to wet open or slightly shaded habitats. Shrub
Sherard’s bugleweed, Sherard’s water horehound Lycopus uniflorus × L. virginicus
shining bedstraw Galium concinnum Dry hillsides. Forb/herb
shining firmoss Huperzia lucidula Cool mesic northern hardwood, coniferous, and hardwood-coniferous forests. Most common on hilltops and in more northern and cooler parts of New York. Subshrub, Shrub
shining ladies’ tresses Spiranthes lucida Rich fens and calcareous seepy habitats with thin soils. Does well in or on the edges of rivulets through fens which have marly rocky soils. Herbaceous
shining rosette grass Dichanthelium lucidum
shining willow Salix lucida Shrub swamps, stream and lake edges, rich fens, ditches, and wet thickets. Populations are often isolated and small. Tree
shiny wedge grass Sphenopholis nitida Graminoid
shore horsetail Equisetum arvense × E. fluviatile Forb/herb
short-awned foxtail Alopecurus aequalis var. aequalis Marshes, swamps, and occasionally wet roadsides. Somewhat local with populations often small. Graminoid
short-fringed sedge Carex crinita var. brevicrinis Herbaceous
short-fruited rush Juncus brachycarpus Graminoid
short-leaved pine Pinus echinata Tree
short-toothed mountain mint Pycnanthemum muticum Forb/herb
showy aster Eurybia spectabilis Forb/herb
showy goldenrod Solidago speciosa Successional fields and edges of forests in sandy soil. Forb/herb
showy tick trefoil Desmodium canadense Edges of forests, thickets, fields, rocky stream banks, and roadsides. Often in open habitats in dry coarse soils but sometimes in wet habitats at least seasonally. Forb/herb
shrubby cinquefoil Dasiphora fruticosa Calcareous cliffs, ledges, rocky river shores, seeps, and swamps, rich fens. A plant of calcareous regions. Shrub
shrubby St. John’s wort Hypericum prolificum Shrub
sickle-leaved golden aster Pityopsis falcata Forb/herb
side oats grama Bouteloua curtipendula var. curtipendula Graminoid
silky dogwood Cornus amomum ssp. amomum Fens, swamps, shrub swamps, marshes, edges of ponds, edges of streams, and ditches. Tree, Shrub
silky willow Salix sericea Swamps, rich fens, wet thickets, wet successional fields, roadsides, ditches, marshes, and edges of lakes and streams. Tree, Shrub
silver maple Acer saccharinum Floodplain forests and banks of larger streams and rivers. This species is also widely cultivated. Tree
silver rod Solidago bicolor Thin forests, woodlands and opening, edges of forests, roadside banks where the herbaceous vegetation is not tall or dense, and successional fields in dry to mesic often thin soils. Does best without intense herbaceous competition. Forb/herb
silvery spleenwort Deparia acrostichoides Rich hardwood forests, and shale and fine talus slopes. A rich calcareous forest herb often in slightly wetter than mesic soils but soil moisture appears to be less critical than soil mineral content. Fern
silvery-green sedge Carex argyrantha Cliffs and ledges, openings in forests, woodlands, rocky summits, roadsides, and gravel and sand mines. Dry to dry-mesic acidic soils. It does best in open sites but also grows under some tree canopy. Graminoid
single-glumed spike rush Eleocharis uniglumis Fresh to slightly brackish tidal marshes along the Hudson River. Graminoid
skunk cabbage Symplocarpus foetidus Seepage springs and slopes, swamps, and wet floodplain forests. Symplocarpus foetidus is common in a variety of shaded wetlands although it does have a preference for cold seepage areas and mucky soils. Forb/herb
skunk meadow rue Thalictrum revolutum Dry to dry-mesic openings in forests, forest edges, pine barrens, rocky open areas, dirt roadsides, and thickets. Forb/herb
sky-blue aster Symphyotrichum oolentangiense Forb/herb
slender blue iris, slender blue flag Iris prismatica Forb/herb
slender bulrush Schoenoplectus heterochaetus Graminoid
slender bush clover Lespedeza virginica Dry to dry-mesic woodlands, rocky summits, and edges of forests. Forb/herb
slender flat-topped goldenrod Euthamia caroliniana Forb/herb
slender glasswort Salicornia depressa Mostly on the upper edges of salt marshes and adjacent maritime areas. Occasionally in waste places and roadsides where heavily salt influenced. Forb/herb
slender marsh pink Sabatia campanulata Forb/herb
slender muhly Muhlenbergia tenuiflora Dry-mesic forested sites of a southern affinity and openings in forests often in rocky soils. Graminoid
slender nut sedge Scleria minor Herbaceous
slender rich woodland sedge Carex gracilescens Dry-mesic to mesic forests, forests edges, roads, utility rights-of-way, and paths through forests. Often on calcareous deep to thin soils or bedrock but occasionally in more acidic sites. Graminoid
slender sedge Carex tenera Thin forests, fields, pastures, roadsides, and railroad edges. Mostly in dry to dry-mesic sandy or rocky soils. Herbaceous
slender spike grass Chasmanthium laxum Graminoid
slender spike rush Eleocharis tenuis var. tenuis Marshes, swamps, wet thickets, and wet disturbed soils. Graminoid
slender threeawn Aristida longespica Graminoid
slender water milfoil Myriophyllum tenellum Edges of lakes and ponds in sandy, coarse, or peaty soils. Forb/herb
slender wedge grass Sphenopholis intermedia Rich mesic to dry-mesic forests, fens and marshes. Perhaps more common in high pH sites. Populations are often small with plants widely scattered. Graminoid
slender woodland sedge Carex digitalis var. digitalis Dry-mesic to mesic forests, roads and paths through forests, and utility rights-of-way. Mostly in more southern forest types dominated by oaks. Often on slopes and in rocky soils. Usually with at least some canopy cover and in areas without adjacent dense herbaceous vegetation. Graminoid
slender yellow flax Linum virginianum Openings in forests, edges of forests, and dirt roads through forests on non-weedy roadsides on dry to dry-mesic thin soils. Forb/herb
slender yellow-eyed grass Xyris torta Forb/herb
slippery elm Ulmus rubra Dry to mesic forests, forest edges, openings in forests, rock outcrops, and stream sides generally in calcareous sites. Tree
Slosson’s wood fern Dryopteris cristata × D. marginalis Fern
small cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccos Acidic bogs and wet seepy disturbed soils. Subshrub, Shrub
small Jack-in-the-pulpit Arisaema pusillum Forb/herb
small pussytoes Antennaria howellii ssp. neodioica Open forests and woodlands, ledges, fine shale talus slopes, gravelly roadsides, and fields over thin soils. Herbaceous
small reed grass Greeneochloa coarctata Graminoid
small Solomon’s seal Polygonatum biflorum var. biflorum Mesic to dry hardwood forests, stream banks, alluvial thickets, woodlands, and edges of forests. Polygonatum biflorum sensu stricto usually occurs in drier, sandier or rockier habitats where P. pubescens does not occur. Forb/herb
small sundrops Oenothera perennis Fields, edges of forests, and roadsides mostly in thin soils. Forb/herb
small white aster Symphyotrichum racemosum Successional fields, roadsides, shores of lakes, and disturbed soils. With us mostly in dry to mesic soils in southeastern NY. Forb/herb
small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides Forb/herb
Small’s yellow-eyed grass, large yellow-eyed grass Xyris smalliana Forb/herb
small-flowered buttercup, small-flowered crowfoot Ranunculus micranthus Wet to wet-mesic seepy forested rock outcrops, ledges, and adjacent soils. Forb/herb
small-flowered evening primrose Oenothera parviflora Forb/herb
small-headed rush Juncus brachycephalus Fairly restricted to calcareous wet or seepy open habitats. Graminoid
small-leaved white snakeroot Ageratina aromatica Herbaceous
small-spurred round-leaved orchid Platanthera orbiculata Mesic coniferous to hardwood forests often in thin acidic soils. Populations are often small and isolated. Forb/herb
smartweed dodder Cuscuta polygonorum Vine, Forb/herb
smooth alder Alnus serrulata Stream banks, wet thickets, and ditches. A southern species it is most common in southeastern NY. Tree, Shrub
smooth arrowwood Viburnum dentatum var. lucidum Shrub swamps including rich fens, marshes, forested swamps, wet to mesic successional shrublands, thickets, occasional in mesic deciduous understories, and roadsides. Grows in a large variety of wet to dry habitats. Lately the non-native viburnum leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta viburni) has been completely defoliating this and a few other Viburnum species in parts of New York. It appears that this species might suffer a huge decline. Tree, Shrub
smooth aster Symphyotrichum laeve var. laeve Dry rocky forested slopes, woodlands, edges of forests, roadsides, occasionally fields, and thickets. Does particularly well in calcareous soils. Forb/herb
smooth cord grass Sporobolus alterniflorus Salt and brackish marshes. A dwarf form grows in high salt marshes while a taller form grows in low salt marshes and more brackish marshes. Graminoid
smooth false foxglove Aureolaria flava Hardwood forests, woodlands, and forest edges with oaks often in thin dry to dry-mesic soils. Forb/herb
smooth oxeye Heliopsis helianthoides ssp. helianthoides Alluvial thickets and forests, stream banks, and disturbed areas in alluvial soils. Predominately a species of alluvial soils. Forb/herb
smooth shadbush Amelanchier laevis Forests, forest edges, openings in forests, thickets, bluffs, rock outcrops, ledges, hummocks in swamps, and roadsides. Tree, Shrub
smooth small-leaved tick trefoil Desmodium marilandicum Edges of forests, thickets, and fields with thin soils. Mostly in acidic coarse soils Forb/herb
smooth sumac Rhus glabra A pioneer species. Similar habitat to R. typhina but perhaps a little less common. Old fields, edges of fields, roadsides, shrubby thickets, stream banks, and edges of forests. Tree, Shrub
smooth tick trefoil Desmodium laevigatum Forb/herb
smooth white violet Viola pallens Margins of ponds and lakes, stream edges, acidic to alkaline peatlands, and wet thickets in perennially saturated mucky soils often growing in mosses. Forb/herb
smooth winterberry Ilex laevigata Swamps with trees and/or shrubs dominant. Tree, Shrub
smooth wire-stemmed muhly Muhlenbergia frondosa Graminoid
smooth-fruited hirsute sedge Carex hirsutella Dry-mesic to mesic forests, woodlands, fields, and pastures. Similar habitat to C. swanii and C. virescens except more frequent in open non-forested habitats such as fields. Graminoid
smooth-sheathed sedge Carex laevivaginata Swamps, marshes, seepage areas, and bottomland wetlands. Mostly in calcareous soils that are saturated. It does particularly well in mucky seepages. Graminoid
soapwort gentian Gentiana saponaria Herbaceous
soft-stemmed bulrush Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani Emergent in marshes; edges of lakes, ponds, and slow-moving streams; fens; roadside ditches; and disturbed inundated soils. One of the most common Schoenoplectus in at least parts of New York, it grows in pristine rare habitats like rich fens as well as in disturbed areas. It usually is emergent from perennially inundated soils to sometimes only seasonally inundated soils. Graminoid
sooty beak sedge Rhynchospora fusca Edge of acid lakes. Graminoid
southeastern bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum ssp. pseudocaudatum Fern
southern agrimony Agrimonia parviflora Pastures, successional fields, thickets, wet open forests, and edges of marshes in non-shaded to partly shaded wet-mesic to wet soils. Forb/herb
southern arrowwood Viburnum dentatum var. venosum Tree, Shrub
southern blue flag Iris virginica Forb/herb
southern ground cedar Diphasiastrum digitatum Mesic forests, forested roadsides, and forest openings often on upper slopes and hilltops with sterile thin soils. Does best in successional forests and sites with recent disturbances. It often grows with Dendrolycopodium obscurum. Subshrub, Shrub
southern lady fern Athyrium asplenioides Fern
southern seaside goldenrod Solidago mexicana Forb/herb
southern shorthusk Brachyelytrum erectum Mesic to dry-mesic hardwood forests often in warmer and more southern sites than B. aristosum. Sometimes in calcareous sites. Graminoid
southern slender ladies’ tresses Spiranthes lacera var. gracilis Forb/herb
southern snailseed pondweed Potamogeton diversifolius Forb/herb
southern sundrops Oenothera fruticosa ssp. fruticosa Forb/herb
southern three-petaled bedstraw Galium tinctorium Marshes, swamps, wet forests, edges of lakes and streams, wet thickets, and ditches. Forb/herb
southern tickle grass Agrostis hyemalis Graminoid
southern twayblade Neottia bifolia Acidic bogs in Sphagnum. Forb/herb
southern water plantain Alisma subcordatum This species along with A. triviale are very similar in terms of their habitat preferences and we have not detected a difference in habitat types. Edges of streams, rivers, ponds, and marshes; and seasonally flooded ponds. This species does quite well on seasonally exposed “draw down” zones on edges of marshes, ponds, and streams. Forb/herb
southern wild raisin Viburnum nudum Tree, Shrub
southern wood violet Viola hirsutula Forb/herb
southern wrinkle-leaved goldenrod Solidago rugosa var. aspera Forb/herb
spatulate-leaved sundew Drosera intermedia Forb/herb
speckled alder Alnus incana ssp. rugosa Forms dense thickets along drainage channels, edges of streams, edges of lakes, fens, bogs, marshes, and forested swamps. A common wetland shrub that occurs in numerous wetland habitats. Tree, Shrub
spicebush Lindera benzoin Floodplain forests, swamps, shrub swamps, wet woods, mesic forests, seeps in forests, and fens. Occurs in mesic to wet soils often but not always in at least partial shade. In some forest understories it can be the dominant species in the shrub layer. Shrub
spike muhly Muhlenbergia glomerata Rich and medium fens, calcareous forested seeps, and occasionally in calcareous swamps. Graminoid
spikenard Aralia racemosa Ravines, ledges, shaded roadsides, thickets, and forest clearings often but not restricted to rich sites. It usually occurs as thinly scattered plants and appears to do well in slightly disturbed areas. Ledges and partially shaded shale talus in ravines are preferred sites. Subshrub
spinulose wood fern Dryopteris carthusiana Swamps, wet forests, and pine forests including pine plantations. Generally occurring in wet to wet-mesic soils but also in mesic to dry-mesic pine forests and also occasionally in mesic hardwood forests. It clearly has an affinity for pine plantations. Fern
spiny-fruited coontail Ceratophyllum echinatum Much less common than C. demersum but in similar habitats. Ponds, lakes, and slow moving streams. Forb/herb
spiny-spored quillwort Isoetes echinospora ssp. muricata Submerged and rooted aquatic on the edges of lakes often in sandy or coarse soils. Herbaceous
spotted Joe Pye weed Eutrochium maculatum var. maculatum Marshes, rich fens, wet fields, ditches, seepage areas, and swamps. In general this species does best in non-shaded environments and is very common in a wide variety of wetlands. Herbaceous
spotted pondweed Potamogeton pulcher Forb/herb
spotted spurge Euphorbia maculata Disturbed soils, waste places (including urban settings), roadsides, railroad edges, and cultivated ground. Mostly in very open thin disturbed soils, a ubiquitous weed. Herbaceous
spotted St. John’s wort Hypericum punctatum Woods roads, forests, and edges of fields. At least in parts of New York it grows in slightly mineral rich dry-mesic forests with thin but diverse and interesting herbaceous vegetation. Forb/herb
spotted water hemlock Cicuta maculata var. maculata Marshes and open swamps similar to C. bulbifera in the way it is usually not dense or abundant at a site. Herbaceous
spotted wintergreen Chimaphila maculata Dry sandy or coarse soils in hardwood forests. Less frequently in more mesic forests or hummocks in swamps. Subshrub, Shrub
spreading dogbane Apocynum androsaemifolium Roadsides, fields, thickets, often in thin soils. Forb/herb
spreading rush Juncus subcaudatus Marshes, edges of streams, and peaty acidic and basic wetlands including fens. In a wide variety of wet habitats and perhaps overlooked. Graminoid
spreading sedge Carex laxiculmis var. laxiculmis Hardwood forests, thickets, fields, and roads and paths thought forests. Often on heavy clay in seasonally flooded or poorly drained soils but also in more mesic sites. Occurring in slightly calcareous to acidic soils but usually not on deep loamy soils. More weedy than var. copulata. Graminoid
spreading wood rush Luzula echinata Graminoid
spreading-beaked sedge Carex squarrosa Wet fields, wet woods, and edges of streams. Very rare or absent from most of western and northern New York but becoming somewhat more common in eastern and southeastern parts of the state. Graminoid
square-stemmed spike rush Eleocharis quadrangulata Brackish marshes and pond edges including inland salt marshes. Graminoid
staggerbush Lyonia mariana Shrub
staghorn clubmoss Lycopodium clavatum Dry to mesic forests, forest openings, forest edges, and sometimes in more open sites in thin acidic soils. Also occasionally in mosses on edges of swamps and marshes. Does well in successional forests and in disturbed soils that become colonized by mosses. Subshrub, Shrub
staghorn sumac Rhus typhina A pioneer species. Old fields, edges of fields, roadsides, shrubby thickets, open stream banks, and edges of forests. Tree
stalked bugleweed, stalked water horehound Lycopus rubellus Forb/herb
stalked panic grass Coleataenia pulchra Graminoid
stalked wool grass Scirpus pedicellatus Marshes, sedge meadows, edges of streams, and wet logging roads. Graminoid
star duckweed Lemna trisulca Quiet water of ponds, lakes, and marshes. Forb/herb
star sedge Carex echinata ssp. echinata One of the most common members of section Stellulatae at least in the more acidic parts of the state. Bogs, coniferous peatlands, seeps, wet ditches, wet fields, coniferous and hardwood swamps including Thuja occidentalis swamps, shrub swamps, edges of streams and creeks, and on floating logs in ponds and on pond edges. Mostly in acidic soils and preferring open habitat or openings in the tree canopy. Graminoid
starflower Lysimachia borealis Cool northern hardwood and mixed hardwood-coniferous forests. Also in peatlands. Often in acidic soils. Forb/herb
starry campion Silene stellata Thin deciduous forests and woodlands often on rocky slopes with dry to dry-mesic calcareous or mineral rich soils. A thin delicate herb mostly occurring in small populations in understories of thin forests. The adjacent herbaceous layer is usually not tall or dense but quite diverse. Forb/herb
starry Solomon’s seal Maianthemum stellatum Alluvial forests, mesic to wet forests, edges of marly ponds, and fens. Somewhat local in parts of New York. Perhaps preferring calcareous or deep rich wet-mesic or seasonally wet soils. Forb/herb
steeplebush Spiraea tomentosa Streamside meadows, wet thickets, ditches, peatlands, swamps, and marshes. Shrub
sticky hawkweed Hieracium scabrum Edges of deciduous forests, thin forests, woodlands, road banks, utility line clearings, and successional fields with thin soils. Does not do well with intensive herbaceous competition. Forb/herb
stiff flat-topped goldenrod Solidago rigida var. rigida Thin dry wooded calcareous slopes, rocky open areas along the coast, rocky river shores, edges of railroads, and roadsides. Forb/herb
stiff-leaved aster Ionactis linariifolia Rocky summits, woodlands, ledges, roadside clearings where it is not too weedy, and utility line rights-of-way, on thin and/or sandy soil or almost directly on bedrock. This species does well with a lot of light but not with dense herbaceous vegetation. Forb/herb
stoneroot, horsebalm Collinsonia canadensis Rich mesic hardwood forests, edges of streams, and low thickets. Sometimes in slightly, at least seasonally, wet soils. Forb/herb
stout smartweed Persicaria robustior
stout woodreed Cinna arundinacea Low wet forests and thickets, swamps, and floodplains. Often growing in large populations. Herbaceous
straw sedge Carex straminea Graminoid
striped bladderwort Utricularia striata Forb/herb
striped maple Acer pensylvanicum A small understory tree that does well in cool microclimates. Forests with a northern affinity, slopes in ravines, and rocky forests. Tree
striped violet, pale violet Viola striata Floodplain forests and thickets, gravel bars on stream edges, and mesic forests in well drained calcareous to circumneutral soils. Herbaceous
Stuve’s bush clover Lespedeza stuevei Forb/herb
succulent hawthorn Crataegus succulenta var. succulenta Tree, Shrub
sugar maple Acer saccharum A widespread and common large tree. It is a little picky about its habitat preferences. In northern or cool habitats it grows with other hardwoods notably beech and yellow birch as well as hemlock. The soils are at least slightly deep or rich. In more southern areas it does well at the toe of the slope in deep rich soils. It also occurs in thin soils over limestone. Tree
summer grape Vitis aestivalis Hardwood forests, forest edges and openings, thickets, and disturbed sites. Vine
swamp azalea Rhododendron viscosum Acidic swamps, swamp edges, and edges of ponds. Usually bordering small acidic ponds with various other tall shrubs including Clethra alnifolia, Vaccinium corymbosum, and Nemopanthus mucronatus. Most common in the more southern parts of New York and restricted or absent from the rest of the state. Shrub
swamp candles Lysimachia terrestris Marshes, peatlands, ponds, lakes, slow moving stream edges, and ditches in shallow water or occasionally on only saturated soils. Forb/herb
swamp cottonwood Populus heterophylla Tree
swamp dewberry Rubus hispidus Cool swamps and swamp edges, peatlands, wet-mesic to cool mesic forests, and roadsides often in mosses. Shrub
swamp dock Rumex verticillatus Forb/herb
swamp fetterbush Eubotrys racemosa Shrub
swamp goldenrod Solidago gigantea Swamps, wet forests, wet fields, and thickets. Solidago gigantea does best in saturated soils although it tolerates soils that are simply mesic, at least seasonally. It usually does not occur in dense stands. Forb/herb
swamp Jack-in-the-pulpit Arisaema stewardsonii Swamps. Forb/herb
swamp oats Sphenopholis pensylvanica Graminoid
swamp red currant Ribes triste Cool swamps, edges of streams, wet thickets, and wet cool hardwood-coniferous and coniferous forests. Most abundant and common in the cooler and more northern parts of New York. Shrub
swamp rose Rosa palustris Swamps, edges of streams and lakes, marshes, and rich shrubby fens. Shrub
swamp rose mallow Hibiscus moscheutos ssp. moscheutos Brackish and fresh tidal and non-tidal often large and extensive marshes. Shrub
swamp saxifrage Micranthes pensylvanica Low areas in swamps and wet forests with mucky saturated soils. Forb/herb
swamp sunflower Helianthus angustifolius Forb/herb
swamp white oak Quercus bicolor Swamps, wet depressions, and thickets. Often in swamps on ridges and hill tops. Always in at least seasonally wet soils this species is often absent from deep alluvial soils where Quercus macrocarpa occurs. Tree
swamp wrinkle-leaved goldenrod Solidago rugosa var. sphagnophila Forb/herb
Swan’s sedge Carex swanii Dry-mesic to mesic forests. Usually in forests of a southern affinity with oaks dominant and often occurs on the upper slopes and crests. The forest canopy can be a little open and the adjacent herbaceous layer is usually not very dense. Graminoid
sweet fern Comptonia peregrina Barrens, rocky summits, woodlands, fields and clearings, open heathlands, roadsides, and utility rights-of-way. A plant of open dry thin acidic soils. Subshrub, Shrub
sweet goldenrod Solidago odora Roadsides, woodlands, and rocky openings. A more southern species occurring with us in only the more southern parts of NY. Forb/herb
sweet white violet Viola blanda Mesic hardwood and mixed coniferous-hardwood forests, mesic to wet-mesic forest openings, hummocks in swamps, swamp margins, and forested dirt roadsides. Herbaceous
sweetgale Myrica gale Edges of streams and ponds, shrub swamps, bogs, and fens. Mostly in cool peaty wet habitats. Sometimes becoming a dominant shrub species in these habitats. Shrub
sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua Cultivated and native. Native populations are restricted to southeastern New York including Long Island. Swamps, successional forests, and edges of forests. Tree
sweet-scented bedstraw Galium triflorum Mesic hardwood forests. Herbaceous
switch grass Panicum virgatum River and ice scour shores, river banks, exposed gravel bars in rivers, Great Lakes and maritime dunes, upper edges of salt and brackish marshes, roadsides, disturbed dry-mesic soils, and occasionally fields. This species is occasionally planted for conservation efforts. Graminoid
tall anemone, thimbleweed Anemone virginiana Thickets, vegetated roadsides, dry-mesic forests and woodlands, openings in forests, and stream sides in dry to mesic soils. Forb/herb
tall cinquefoil Drymocallis arguta Dry forest openings, alvar habitats, often but not restricted to calcareous regions. Herbaceous
tall flat-topped white aster Doellingeria umbellata var. umbellata Roadside ditches, wet to mesic successional fields, thickets, marshes, seepages, and openings in swamps. Perhaps more common in northern and cooler parts of NY. Usually preferring wet ground but also growing in drier situations. Forb/herb
tall goldenrod Solidago altissima ssp. altissima Successional fields, pastures, road banks, and disturbed soil. Sometimes occurring in disturbed soil in forested situations but clearly doing best in open areas. Forms dense patches in successional fields and is one of our most common goldenrods except in the northern part of the state. Forb/herb
tall horned beak sedge Rhynchospora macrostachya Graminoid
tall lettuce Lactuca canadensis Cut forests, edges and clearings in forests, roadsides, thickets, edges of fields, and disturbed areas. Forb/herb
tall meadow rue Thalictrum pubescens Rich fens, stream banks, swamps, marshes, and wet thickets. Forb/herb
tall rattlesnake root Nabalus altissimus Mesic forests, thickets, and edges of forests. Prenanthes altissima is a generalist in terms of soil preferences and is our most widespread and common Prenanthes throughout the state. Forb/herb
tall sunflower Helianthus giganteus Forb/herb
tamarack Larix laricina Bogs, cool northern swamps, rich peatlands, and cool mesic forests at high elevation. Predominately a plant of cool northern wetlands it is local in distribution in the warmer and more southern parts of New York. Tree
tawny cotton grass Eriophorum virginicum Peaty acidic wetlands including bogs, peaty shores of ponds, and swamps. Graminoid
ternate-leaved cinquefoil Potentilla norvegica Roadsides, disturbed sites, successional fields, forest edges, open rock outcrops, and openings in forests. Herbaceous
Texas wild flax Linum medium var. texanum Herbaceous
thicket creeper Parthenocissus inserta Vine
thin bead grass Paspalum setaceum var. setaceum Graminoid
thin-leaved late purple aster Symphyotrichum phlogifolium Forb/herb
thin-leaved sunflower Helianthus decapetalus Most common on stream banks and in alluvial thickets and forests. It also occurs in deciduous swamps, wet forests, and wet to mesic disturbed areas. This species is long rhizomatous and can create large dense patches. Forb/herb
thread-leaved sundew Drosera filiformis Forb/herb
three-fruited sedge Carex trisperma Coniferous or deciduous swamps, bogs, and peaty wetlands. Very common and dominant in peaty understories of swamps usually on hummocks with at most saturated soils although occurring adjacent to wetter soils. Often growing on mosses and sometimes forming continuous somewhat thin carpets in these habitats. It also grows in more open bogs and peatlands but usually does not occur in the very specific habitat of hummocks in bogs, where the closely related Carex billingsii occurs. Graminoid
three-leaved rattlesnake root Nabalus trifoliolatus Forests, forests edges, and thickets. Growing into the alpine zone of New York’s highest peaks. Forb/herb
three-lobed red maple Acer rubrum var. trilobum Tree
three-lobed violet Viola palmata Dry-mesic hardwood forests and forest edges on middle to upper slopes and tops of hills in acidic soils. Forb/herb
three-ribbed spike rush Eleocharis tricostata Graminoid
three-square bulrush Schoenoplectus pungens var. pungens Edge of lakes, streams, rivers, and ponds; and marshes. In fresh to brackish water including inland salt marshes. Often in gravel, sand, or coarse soils. Graminoid
three-way sedge Dulichium arundinaceum var. arundinaceum Margins of ponds, marshes, and swamps. Often in standing water and perhaps most robust in non-shaded sites. Graminoid
thyme-leaved pinweed Lechea minor Forb/herb
toothed flat sedge Cyperus dentatus Gravelly and sandy shores of lakes. Graminoid
toothed white-topped aster Sericocarpus asteroides Open bluffs, thin forests, utility rights-of- way, and non-forested habitat in dry to dry-mesic thin soils. Forb/herb
Torrey’s beak sedge Rhynchospora torreyana Graminoid
Torrey’s bulrush Schoenoplectus torreyi Graminoid
Torrey’s rush Juncus torreyi Marshes, edges of ponds, and other wetland habitats. Somewhat local in distribution but often occurring in large populations. Herbaceous
Torrey’s thoroughwort Eupatorium torreyanum Forb/herb
tower mustard Turritis glabra Successional fields, roadsides, and disturbed places often in thin dry soils. A native species almost always found in non-native habitats. Forb/herb
trailing arbutus, mayflower Epigaea repens Dry to mesic acidic hardwood or hemlock-hardwood forests often in a association with Vaccinium and Gaylussacia spp. Also in areas with less of a tree canopy cover. This species does particularly well on edges of dirt or logging roads through forests on acidic soils. Subshrub, Shrub
trailing bush clover Lespedeza procumbens Dry-mesic to mesic hardwood forests, woodlands, barrens, bluffs, and rocky summits. Forb/herb
trembling aspen, quaking aspen Populus tremuloides Successional forests, logged forests, burned forests, forest edges, openings in forests, successional fields, and roadsides. Tree
triploid wood fern Dryopteris carthusiana × D. intermedia Fern
troublesome sedge Carex molesta Fields, swales in fields, limestone woodlands, and alvars. A calciphile that grows readily in successional fields as well as more native open habitats such as limestone pavements barrens and woodlands. It grows in very dry to at least seasonally wet sites. Graminoid
trumpet honeysuckle, coral honeysuckle Lonicera sempervirens Vine
Tuckerman’s quillwort Isoetes tuckermanii Edges of often acidic lakes. Herbaceous
Tuckerman’s witch grass Panicum tuckermanii Graminoid
tufted hair grass Deschampsia cespitosa ssp. cespitosa Graminoid
tufted loosestrife Lysimachia thyrsiflora Marshes and swamps often in relatively small populations that are not dense. Plants sometimes grow with dense herbaceous cover. Forb/herb
tufted love grass Eragrostis pectinacea var. pectinacea Railroad edges, disturbed soils, waste places, fields with thin soils, and stream banks. Herbaceous
tulip tree, tulip poplar, yellow poplar Liriodendron tulipifera Mesic to wet-mesic hardwood forests. In all but the most southern parts of New York this tree is often an indicator of deep rich mesic circumneutral soils growing primarily in valley bottoms (excluding the lowest floodplains) and on lower slopes. In the most southern parts of the state it also grows in more acidic drier sites and occurs in a wider array of forested habitats. Tree
Turk’s cap lily Lilium superbum Floodplain forests and thickets often in full sun in deep alluvium. Most common in the southern tier of New York. Herbaceous
tussock sedge Carex stricta Graminoid
twig rush Cladium mariscoides Acidic to more minerotrophic non-shaded peatlands. Graminoid
twining milk pea Galactia regularis Vine, Forb/herb
twisted spike rush Eleocharis tortilis Herbaceous
two-colored fringed orchid Platanthera blephariglottis × P. ciliaris Forb/herb
two-flowered dwarf dandelion Krigia biflora Mesic young forests. Forb/herb
two-leaved toothwort Cardamine diphylla Rich mesic deciduous forests, seepage areas, bottomlands, and stream banks. Growing in richer often slightly wetter soils than C. concatenata but in places growing together. Much less common in cooler parts of NY. Forb/herb
typical hoary sedge Carex canescens ssp. canescens Graminoid
upland thoroughwort Eupatorium sessilifolium Forb/herb
vanilla sweet grass Anthoxanthum nitens ssp. nitens Upper edges of salt marshes. Graminoid
variable dock Rumex britannica × R. crispus
variable sedge Carex polymorpha Graminoid
various-leaved water milfoil, variable-leaved water milfoil Myriophyllum heterophyllum Lakes, ponds, and quiet water of streams. Sometimes quite abundant. Forb/herb
veined thoroughwort Eupatorium subvenosum Forb/herb
velvet rosette grass Dichanthelium scoparium Graminoid
velvet sedge Carex vestita Graminoid
vernal water starwort Callitriche palustris Ditches, streams, tidal streams, and drainages and pools in marshes and swamps. Mostly in slow to somewhat faster moving water. Also stranded on edges of streams and drainage channels. Forb/herb
violet wood sorrel Oxalis violacea Dry to dry-mesic woodlands, rocky summits, and edges of forests. Local in distribution, populations are often isolated but sometimes consist of large patches. Forb/herb
virgin’s bower Clematis virginiana Riparian forests and thickets, rich fens, shrub swamps, wet-mesic hedgerows, and wet thickets. Vine, Subshrub
Virginia bugleweed, Virginia water horehound Lycopus virginicus Forb/herb
Virginia bunchflower Melanthium virginicum Forb/herb
Virginia chain fern Anchistea virginica Acid bogs, swamps, edges of ponds, and wet thickets. In at least parts of NY this species is very limited in distribution. Where it occurs it can form large stands. Forb/herb
Virginia creeper Parthenocissus quinquefolia Mesic forests (particularly bottomland and young successional forests), forest edges, hedgerows, thickets, openings in forests, talus slopes, and rock outcrops. Vine
Virginia ground cherry Physalis virginiana var. virginiana Forb/herb
Virginia marbleseed Lithospermum virginianum Forb/herb
Virginia marsh St. John’s wort Hypericum virginicum Marshes, shrub swamps, and acidic peaty wetlands. Forb/herb
Virginia meadow beauty Rhexia virginica Pond and lake shores, edges of streams, and thickets in wet peaty or sandy soils. Primarily in full sun. Forb/herb
Virginia mountain mint Pycnanthemum virginianum Edges of marshes, fields, thickets, and railroad edges in wet to dry soils. Forb/herb
Virginia pine Pinus virginiana Tree
Virginia rose Rosa virginiana Shrub
Virginia snakeroot Endodeca serpentaria A southern species with us primarily in southeastern NY. Dry-mesic south to south-west facing oak-hickory forested slopes often with abundant non-weedy herbaceous species such as Lespedeza intermedia, Agrimonia rostellata, and Carex willdenowii. Often with dense Dichanthelium boscii stands and Carya glabra dominant in the canopy. Sometimes in small seasonal drainages in this habitat. Populations are usually small and not dense. Forb/herb
Virginia three-seeded Mercury Acalypha virginica Herbaceous
Virginia wild rye Elymus virginicus var. virginicus Predominately in floodplain forests and thickets but occasionally else where often in disturbed soils. Graminoid
Virginian rock polypody, Virginian polypody Polypodium virginianum Rims of cliffs, ledges, tops of boulders in forests, and talus slopes on thin mesic soil over rocks. Distinctions in habitat preferences between this and the very closely related P. appalachianum as well as the hybrid between the two (P. x incognitum) have not been detected. Forb/herb
walking spike rush Eleocharis rostellata Rich and marl fens often forming large patches. Fairly restricted to wet very calcareous soils. Graminoid
Walter’s sedge Carex striata Graminoid
wand-like bush clover Lespedeza violacea Dry-mesic hardwood forests and woodlands. Often on rocky acidic to circumneutral soils including shale talus on upper slopes and bluffs. Forb/herb
water bulrush Schoenoplectus subterminalis Often submerged except for the emergent inflorescences. The leaves are often flaccid. In slow moving streams and edges of lakes. Graminoid
water celery, tape grass Vallisneria americana Lakes, streams, rivers, and tidal bays. Forb/herb
water lobelia Lobelia dortmanna Soft water lakes and ponds. Basal rosette of leaves are submersed and grow on firm sandy to gravelly (occasionally more mucky) substrates. Scapes are submersed or often become emersed. Forb/herb
water pimpernel, brookweed Samolus valerandi Brackish marshes (including tidal ones) and pond and wetland edges. Forb/herb
water purslane Ludwigia palustris Edges of ponds, lakes, and streams; wet depressions, vernal pools, swamps, and marshes. Grows predominately in open sites where the soils are saturated to seasonally inundated and the adjacent herbaceous vegetation is not dense or tall. It does particularly well in open exposed muddy edges that result from water levels dropping. It can form dense extensive patches. Forb/herb
water sedge Carex aquatilis Graminoid
water willow Decodon verticillatus On the edges of ponds and lakes, swamps, and wet thickets. Occasionally in Sphagnum dominated peatlands. Sometimes forming dense impenetrable thickets in shallow to deep water. Subshrub, Shrub
watershield Brasenia schreberi Ponds, lakes, and slow moving streams. Forb/herb
wavy-leaved aster Symphyotrichum undulatum Forest edges, woodlands, rocky open forests, edges of forests, bluffs, and occasionally roadsides. Grows in dry to mesic soils but more often in drier soils. Forb/herb
weak rush Juncus debilis Herbaceous
weak stellate sedge Carex seorsa Acidic hardwood swamps, seepy wet forests, peaty shrublands, and pond edges. It can often be found in small pocket wetlands dominated by shrubs and some Acer rubrum. It mostly grows in some shade. Restricted to acidic wetlands. Perhaps most common in southeastern New York. Herbaceous
whip nut sedge Scleria triglomerata Herbaceous
white ash Fraxinus americana Dry to mesic and occasionally wetter forests and in more open habitats like barrens, woodlands, and rocky summits. Also appearing as an early successional tree in old fields. Commonly produces abundant seedlings in both closed and open sites. Tree
white avens Geum canadense Various types of forests but particularly floodplain and successional forests, forest edges, openings in forests, thickets, and disturbed sites. Forb/herb
white baneberry, doll’s eyes Actaea pachypoda Rich mesic forests. Often in slightly richer sites than Actaea rubra. Forb/herb
white basswood Tilia americana var. heterophylla Tree
white beak sedge Rhynchospora alba Peatlands both basic and acidic including rich fens, poor fens, and acidic bogs. In these habitats it grows in heavily saturated and inundated soils often where the mat is not as well formed advising the botanist not to step in these areas. Graminoid
white bog orchid, bog candle Platanthera dilatata var. dilatata Fens, seepages, peaty open wet habitats, swamps, and wet roadside ditches. Herbaceous
white colicroot, unicorn root Aletris farinosa Forb/herb
white cut grass Leersia virginica Edges of dirt roads through forests, seepages in forests, and wet thickets. Predominately in seasonal wet to damp shaded sites. Graminoid
white dock Rumex triangulivalvis Forb/herb
white fringed orchid Platanthera blephariglottis var. blephariglottis Bogs and peaty open wetlands in Sphagnum. Forb/herb
white milkweed Asclepias variegata Forb/herb
white oak Quercus alba Dry to mesic forests. Tolerant of a wide variety of soil types it is lacking in the most xeric woodlands, in cool habitats, and in the richest deepest soils. Some forests were previously selectively logged for this species and perhaps as a result white oak is less frequent than it was formerly. Tree
white pine Pinus strobus Occurs in a wide variety of wet to dry habitats including mesic forests, dry rocky forests on slopes, successional fields and shrublands, lake edges, hummocks in swamps, rises in bogs, and elsewhere. Usually needing disturbances or openings to establish and therefore in many forests it is only a small component of the tree canopy. On lake edges and in areas regenerating from clearing or other disturbances it sometimes forms pure stands. Tree
white spruce Picea glauca Cultivated and occasionally naturalizing as well as native in the northern parts of New York in mesic cool forests. Sometimes in wetter soils. Tree
white turtlehead Chelone glabra Swamps, marshes, rich fens, ditches, and wet thickets. Forb/herb
white vervain Verbena urticifolia Disturbed soils, roadsides, successional fields, thickets, forested openings, and edges of forests in wet to mesic soils. Forb/herb
white water buttercup Ranunculus trichophyllus
white wood aster Eurybia divaricata Dry-mesic to mesic deciduous to mixed coniferous-deciduous forests and woodlands. It does very well on the edges of these habitats. Also on trail and woods road margins. This species is sometimes the dominant herbaceous species in forested habitats although it is not an aggressive plant. Forb/herb
white-bracted thoroughwort Eupatorium leucolepis Forb/herb
white-edged sedge Carex debilis var. debilis Graminoid
white-haired rosette grass Dichanthelium villosissimum Graminoid
white-leaved greenbrier Smilax glauca Primarily in dry to dry-mesic oak dominated forests and forest edges. A plant restricted to the warmer and more southern parts of New York. Vine
white-tinged sedge Carex albicans Dry-mesic to mesic hardwood forests often of a southern affinity, forest edges and openings, woodlands, rocky summits, occasional on edges of seasonal drainages, dirt road banks, and utility rights-of-way. Primarily grows in at least some shade. Graminoid
whorled loosestrife Lysimachia quadrifolia Acidic dry-mesic to mesic hardwood forests and forest edges. Sometimes it grows in more open sites but generally it is a forest herb. Forb/herb
whorled marsh pennywort Hydrocotyle verticillata var. verticillata Forb/herb
whorled milkweed Asclepias verticillata Thin rocky forests, rocky summits, and woodlands of a southern affinity. Forb/herb
whorled mountain mint Pycnanthemum verticillatum var. verticillatum Forb/herb
whorled water milfoil Myriophyllum verticillatum Forb/herb
whorled wood aster Oclemena acuminata Cool mesic deciduous and mixed coniferous-deciduous forests and hummocks in swamps. Occurs where the soils are medium rich and the herbaceous layer is not dense. Forb/herb
wide-leaved cattail Typha latifolia Fresh tidal and non-tidal marshes, ditches, pond and lake edges, stream sides, swamps, wet thickets, and rich fens. Forb/herb
wide-leaved prickly bog sedge Carex atlantica ssp. atlantica Wet pond margins, stream edges, shrub swamps, hardwood swamps, hummock in bogs, and floating logs. Grows in acidic wet sometimes peaty soils. Herbaceous
widgeon grass, ditch grass Ruppia maritima Forb/herb
Wiegand’s rush Juncus anthelatus
wild bean Phaseolus polystachios Vine, Forb/herb
wild black cherry Prunus serotina var. serotina Hardwood forests, forest edges, and hedge rows. A major forest tree in hardwood forests preferring rich mesic soils. Tree, Shrub
wild black currant Ribes americanum Floodplain forests, thickets, and stream edges. Often in deep well drained alluvium. Shrub
wild calla Calla palustris Cool Tsuga canadensis, mixed coniferous-hardwood, and coniferous swamps. Also in cool seepages. Forb/herb
wild columbine, red columbine Aquilegia canadensis Cliffs, ledges, talus slopes, on or adjacent to forested rock outcrops, and edges of paths and dirt roads through forests often associated with calcareous soils and/or bedrock Forb/herb
wild geranium Geranium maculatum Edges of hardwood forests, open forests, successional forests, and occasionally on hummocks in seepy swamps. Does best on edges of forests in rocky dry-mesic rich soils. Forb/herb
wild ginger Asarum canadense Slopes and bases of slopes in rich mesic forests with deep or calcareous soils and occasionally somewhat drier forests over limestone. Forb/herb
wild hydrangea Hydrangea arborescens Banks of streams in narrow forested ravines and slopes of ravines. Very specific to these niches in New York. Rare and local in New York although present in many of the ravines in south-central New York where this species is at the edge of its range. Shrub
wild indigo Baptisia tinctoria Dry to mesic acidic open to occasionally somewhat closed habitats including rocky summits, woodlands, thin deciduous forests, edges of forests, disturbed soils, and roadsides. It occurs in Quercus montana woodlands with ericaceous shrubs. In shaded habitat it occurs as a small plant while in open habitat it becomes a dense robust herb the size of a beach ball. Forb/herb
wild lupine, sundial lupine Lupinus perennis ssp. perennis Pine barrens, sandy open barrens, acidic oak dominated forests, bluffs, roadsides through forests, and edges of forests. This species does well with a relatively frequent fire regime. It may be decreasing in abundance as fires are prevented. In forested habitats, it often grows where Quercus montana and ericaceous shrubs are dominant. Forb/herb
wild oats, sessile-leaved bellwort Uvularia sessilifolia Mesic to dry-mesic northern hardwood forests in thin acidic soils. Very common in the northern and cooler parts of New York. Herbaceous
wild pink Silene caroliniana ssp. pensylvanica Edge of forests and open road margins. Forb/herb
wild sarsaparilla Aralia nudicaulis A forest understory herbaceous plant it occurs in a wide variety of dry to mesic forest types although it usually is absent or sparse in our deepest and richest soils. Herbaceous
wild sensitive plant Chamaecrista nictitans var. nictitans Rocky summits, woodlands, thin forests, railroad edges, gravel pits, and disturbed soils. Mostly in open acidic sites with thin dry soils. If a lot of available habitat is present it can form extensive patches. Herbaceous
wild yam Dioscorea villosa Alluvial thickets and rich low forests. Vine
Willdenow’s sedge Carex willdenowii On acidic to somewhat basic dry rocky slopes and crests in hardwood forests of a southern affinity. Also on bluffs and rims of ravines. Often growing in areas with interesting southern plants of dry oak-hickory forests. Graminoid
willow oak Quercus phellos Tree
willow-leaved aster Symphyotrichum praealtum Herbaceous
winter grape Vitis vulpina Vine
wintergreen, teaberry Gaultheria procumbens Dry-mesic to mesic acidic hardwood and hemlock-hardwood forests often in association with ericaceous shrubs. Subshrub, Shrub
witch hazel Hamamelis virginiana An understory shrub in various dry-mesic to mesic hardwood forests. Tree, Shrub
wood anemone Anemone quinquefolia var. quinquefolia Mesic thickets, forests, forest edges, and edges of streams often in valley bottoms. Forb/herb
wood betony, eastern lousewort Pedicularis canadensis Utility rights-of-way, dry to dry-mesic woodlands and thin canopied hardwood forests, forest openings, and bluffs. Herbaceous
wood bulrush Scirpus expansus Marshes and seepage areas. Graminoid
wood horsetail Equisetum sylvaticum Swamps, wet forests, banks of small streams, rich fens, and seepages. Usually an understory plant in slightly open swamps growing both on hummocks and in hollows. It prefers sites with calcareous or somewhat rich soils but is not completely limited to these conditions. Forb/herb
wood lily Lilium philadelphicum Forests, woodlands, edges of forests, and utility rights-of-way in dry thin or sandy soils. Often on hilltops in partial shade in relatively poor soils. Herbaceous
wood nettle Laportea canadensis Rich wet-mesic to mesic forests, stream edges, and forested seeps. Generally in rich cool shaded wet-mesic sites and sometimes forming large dense populations. Forb/herb
woodland agrimony Agrimonia rostellata Predominately dry-mesic oak-hickory forests and woodlands often in coarse grained or rocky calcareous to circumneutral soils but also openings in forests and rich mesic forests. Forb/herb
woodland buttercup, woodland crowfoot Ranunculus hispidus Dry-mesic to mesic forested slopes and summits, and thickets in thin rocky calcareous to circumneutral soils. Forb/herb
woodland club sedge Trichophorum planifolium Dry to mesic hardwood forests of a southern affinity, woodlands, and bluffs. Often in forests with oaks and hickories dominant. Usually in forests that are not very weedy and the adjacent herbaceous layer is not very dense. Graminoid
woodland sunflower Helianthus divaricatus Dry to dry-mesic deciduous forests, thin forests, and woodlands as well as edges of these habitats. This species does best on dry rocky thinly forested slopes where the herbaceous vegetation is not very tall or dense but can be quite diverse. It can form large patches although it usually does not grow in dense stands. Forb/herb
woolly rosette grass Dichanthelium lanuginosum Dry to dry-mesic thin forests and woodlands, openings and disturbed areas in forests, and open habitat with thin rocky or gravelly soils. It also occasionally occurs in wet soils of peatlands and swamps. Graminoid
woolly sedge Carex pellita Marshes, wet fields, clearings in forests, Lake Ontario sand dunes, ditches, and rarely peatlands. Generally in non-peaty wetlands and preferring calcareous soils. Graminoid
woolly-fruited sedge Carex lasiocarpa ssp. americana Rich swamps, fens, pond edges, and inland salt marshes. In both acidic and high pH sites, it often occurs in standing water. Graminoid
Wright’s rosette grass Dichanthelium wrightianum Graminoid
wrinkle-seeded sedge Carex rugosperma Dry to mesic hardwood forests usually at least somewhat open, woodlands, pine barrens, fields, shale and fine talus slopes, road banks, paths through forests, and utility rights-of-way. Most common in dry sites with at least some canopy cover but also occasionally occurs in more open habitat. Sometimes occurring with var. tonsa. Grows in more acidic environments than C. umbellata although the two occasionally occur together. Graminoid
yellow birch Betula alleghaniensis Cool mesic forests and swamps. A widespread tree in NY it is dominant or co-dominant in some types of northern hardwood forests as well as cool swamps. Tree
yellow giant hyssop, catnip giant hyssop Agastache nepetoides Herbaceous
yellow ladies’ tresses Spiranthes ochroleuca Dry to dry-mesic oak dominated forests and woodlands. Forb/herb
yellow oak, chinquapin oak Quercus muehlenbergii Dry to mesic forests and woodlands on calcareous soils or bedrock including alvars, limestone woodlands and forests, and mesic forests in rich deep soils. Tree
yellow pimpernel Taenidia integerrima Thin forests, non weedy clearings and forest openings, rims of ravines, and shale talus slopes. The soils are often dry, rocky, and calcareous. This species appears to need a lot of light to flower and become vigorous although it does not do well with herbaceous competition. It also is much more abundant in calcareous regions. Its habitat preferences are similar to Zizia aptera except perhaps for the preferences for calcareous sites. Forb/herb
yellow pinesap Hypopitys monotropa In a wide variety of dry-mesic to mesic forests. Often not occurring in large populations and much less frequent then the more common M. uniflora. Forb/herb
yellow star grass Hypoxis hirsuta Oak dominated forests, woodlands, rocky summits, and utility rights-of-way in dry to dry-mesic soils. Most common in warmer and more southern parts of New York. Forb/herb
yellow trout lily Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum Bluffs, slopes, and bottomlands in rich mesic to dry-mesic hardwood or hardwood-coniferous forests. Occurs in deep soils adjacent to a dense and diverse herbaceous layer but perhaps is more common in thinner drier sites where the herbaceous layer is also thinner and less diverse. In the latter sites it can become a dominant member of the herb layer. Forb/herb
yellow water buttercup, yellow water crowfoot Ranunculus flabellaris Forb/herb
yellow-fruited sedge Carex annectens Dry to wet fields, openings in mesic forests, gravel pits, and edge of ponds. Apparently more common in eastern and southeastern New York. Graminoid
zigzag goldenrod Solidago flexicaulis Rich mesic forests, forested road banks, edges of forests, and thickets. Prefers deep calcareous soils. Solidago flexicaulis is an understory herb of mesic forested environments. In the northern parts of NY it is more restricted to rich forests while in the southern parts of NY it grows in a wider variety of soils although still prefers the richer sites. Forb/herb


This program is a partnership between the Long Island Regional Planning Council, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Long Island Sound Study and NEIWPCC.


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