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Chloride Resources Clearinghouse

Informing community decisions about innovative and alternative chloride reduction strategies.

The Chloride Resources Clearinghouse is an information-sharing platform, providing innovative and alternative chloride reduction resources. It is a collaborative effort between NEIWPCC and the salty folks at the EPA’s Chloride Technical Management Workgroup.

To find resources pertaining to a specific subject, please use the search bar with keywords such as the following: volunteer, public outreach, water softening, guidance, training, de-icing, softening, discharge, calcium chloride, aquatic organisms, liability, certification, policy, variance, ordinance, rebate, partnership, public, private, municipal, residential, Minnesota, New Hampshire, EPA Region 1, etc.

Links go to external resources which may move or be deleted over time. If you have any questions or feedback, please use the form at the bottom of the page or contact James Plummer.

Category Link Description Creator   Location Keywords Notes
Winter Maintenance WI Salt Wise Salt Wise Winter Salt Certification classes for winter maintenance professionals and everyone involved in winter maintenance decision-making WI Salt Wise Partnership Wisonsin, Midwest, EPA Region 5, state website, training, winter maintenance professionals
Public Outreach/Education Outreach from Smart Salt Collaborative Public support for your snow and ice strategies starts with education and outreach; take advantage of the resources below, including graphics, blog posts, and videos, to get your community on board Smart Salt Collaborative Illinois, Midwest, Region 5, non-profit website, public outreach
Public Outreach/Education Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District Chloride Reduction Education and resources for the public including sources of chloride and ways to reduce its use Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District Madison, Dane County, Wisconsin winter maintenance, water softening, sources
Public Outreach/Education City of Lake Geneva Utility Commission Education and resources for the public including sources of chloride and ways to reduce its use; includes information on water softener rebate program City of Lake Geneva Utility Commission water softener, rebate program
Regulatory Chloride TLWQS (Variance) for the CAWS Watershed The Illinois Pollution Control Board issues a time-limited water quality standard (TLWQS) for chloride to 48 petitioners Illinois Pollution Control Board Illinois, Midwest, Region 5, ILEPA variance, waterbody, waterbody variance, CAWS
Public Outreach/Education The Impacts of Road Salt Road salt impacts and reduction efforts Maryland Dept. of the Environment Maryland winter maintenance, impacts, reduction, BMPs
Public Outreach/Education Residential BMPs A website resource that provides tips and information so that members of the general public can put into practice salt best management practices Northern Virginia Salt Management Strategy (SaMS) Stakeholders Virginia general public salt reduction efforts, salt use best practices at home, residential BMPs, SaMS, public outreach, tips for homeowners
Regulatory Chloride TMDLs for the Accotink Creek Watershed, Fairfax County, Virginia The Chloride TMDL report for the Accotink Creek benthic and chloride impairment; this was approved by EPA on May 23, 2018 Virginia Department of Environmental Quality Virginia TMDL, TMDL report, watershed clean-up plan, chloride TMDL, Accotink Creek This webpage will be replaced once our agency TMDLs page is restored.
Winter Maintenance Salt Management Strategy Toolkit This webpage hosts the Northern Virginia Salt Management Strategy Toolkit and its accompanying summary document. The Toolkit is a massive compilation of stakeholder developed resources and recommendations to promote more effective salt use Northern Virginia Salt Management Strategy (SaMS) Stakeholders Virginia salt management strategy, SaMS, Northern Virginia SaMS, winter maitenance, winter maitenance BMPs, education and outreach, water quality monitoring Note, I selected winter maitenance for the category although this is very cross-cutting. It delves into education and outreach, water quality monitoring, and other topics.
Science Catalyzing Stakeholder-Driven Solutions to Inland Freshwater Salinization The project focuses on two major causes of inland freshwater salinization: salt released from sewage sources such as household products (in Phase I, 9/30/20 to 9/30/22) and salt released from watershed sources such as deicers (in Phase II, 9/30/22 to 9/30/25) Virginia Tech – Occoquan Watershed Monitoring Lab Virginia freshwater salinization, sewage salinization, sewage sources, deicers, NSF, watershed study
Winter Maintenance Green SnowPro Certification State-of-the-art salt reduction practices that prioritize public safety while mitigating salt usage New Hampshire Dept of Environmental Services New Hampshire volunteer commercial salt applicator training and certification, New Hampshire, Green SnowPro, winter salt management program, training Currently the volunteer, commerical salt applicator program certifies over 500 salt applicators per year. Municipalities will be eligible for certification in the program by 2023. Once certified by NHDES, Green SnowPro salt applicators are afforded limited liability insurace protection from slip and fall claims.
Winter Maintenance Callibration Examples Callibration examples for salt equipment WI Salt Wise Partnership Wisonsin, Midwest, EPA Region 5, state training, winter maintenance professionals
Winter Maintenance Brushes Overview of benefits of snow removal brushes WI Salt Wise Partnership Wisonsin, Midwest, EPA Region 5, state training, winter maintenance professionals
Winter Maintenance Parking Lot & Sidewalk Chlorides and winter management DuPage River Salt Creek Workgroup Illinois, Midwest, Region 5 calcium chloride, Illinois, de-icing
Winter Maintenance Brine Brine & brine reuse WI Salt Wise Partnership Wisonsin, Midwest, EPA Region 5, state brine, water softener brine reclamation, winter maintenance professionals
Winter Maintenance Public Roads Best management practices for road salt DuPage River Salt Creek Workgroup Illinois, Midwest, Region 5 calcium chloride, Illinois, de-icing
Winter Maintenance Chapter 8:
Winter Snow and Ice
Operations
Policy recommendations re: deicing agents, storage, handling, and training/certification DuPage River Salt Creek Workgroup Illinois, Midwest, Region 5 recommendations, winter maintenance professionals, Illinois, salt storage, deicing agents
Winter Maintenance Facebook page Facebook page dedicated to educating the public about the over use of salt and dangers to bodies of water Stop Over Salting Minnesota facebook, public education, limited liability, outreach
Public Outreach/Education Upper Mississippi River Basin Association Resolution Regarding Chloride Contamination in the Upper Mississippi River Basin A resolution committing to facilitating cooperative action among state and federal water quality and transportation agencies, local governments, and private salt applicators to reduce rising chloride contamination UMRBA Midwest, Great Plains, Mississippi River resolution, action, transportation, government, non-profit
Winter Maintenance Title LII Limitation of Actions Limited liability for winter maintenance providers New Hampshire Courts New Hampshire limited liability, winter maintenance policy, New Hampshire legal code
Winter Maintenance Ordinance Regulating Storage and Handling of Deicing Materials – Crest Hill City of Crest Hill, Illinois deicing material regulations DuPage River Salt Creek Workgroup Illinois, Midwest, Region 5 Crest Hill, Illinois, deicing materials storage and handling, city ordinanace
Winter Maintenance Model Snow and Ice Policies and Contracts Snow and ice policies for Wisconsin and Minnesota counties WI Salt Wise Partnership Wisonsin, Midwest, EPA Region 5, state winter maintenance professionals, salt reduction, snow policy guidance
Winter Maintenance Goodhue County MN Snow and Ice Control Policy Snow and ice removal guidelines Goodhue County, MN Minnesota winter maintenance professionals, salt reduction, snow policy guidance
Winter Maintenance City of Rochester MN Snow and Ice Control Snow and ice removal guidelines Rochester, MN Minnesota winter maintenance professionals, salt reduction, snow policy guidance
Winter Maintenance City of Eagan MN Snow and Ice Control Snow and ice removal guidelines Eagan, MN Minnesota winter maintenance professionals, salt reduction, snow policy guidance
Winter Maintenance La Sueur MN Snow Emergency/Snow Removal Policy Snow and ice removal guidelines Le Sueur, MN Minnesota winter maintenance professionals, salt reduction, snow policy guidance
Winter Maintenance UW-Madison Outdoor Salt Use Policy Salt use policy for University of Wisconsin – Madison University of Wisonsin_Madison Environment Health and Safety Dept. Wisonsin, Midwest, EPA Region 5, state winter maintenance professionals, salt reduction, snow policy guidance
Winter Maintenance Minnesota Model Model Snow and Ice Management Policy Snow and ice policy – Minnesota municipalities Minnesota Pollution Control Agency Minnesota snow and ice policy, Minnesota, winter maintenance professionals, municipalities
Winter Maintenance Minnesota Model Exhibit for Private Snow & Ice Service Contract Snow and ice policy – Minnesota private contractors Minnesota Pollution Control Agency Minnesota snow and ice policy, Minnesota, winter maintenance professionals, private contractors
Public Outreach/Education Water Softening Options for Commercial and Industrial Users Guidelines for water softening for commercial/industrial settings University of Minnesota Minnesota water softening, commercial, industrial
Public Outreach/Education Guide to Developing a Local Water Softener Rebate Program General guide for city or watershed managers developing a water softener rebate program Minnesota Pollution Control Agency Minnesota water softening education, rebate program
Public Outreach/Education Important Notice About Water Water Softener Discharge Ordinance Compliance Required Notice to residents regarding water softener rebate program Pinkney, Michigan Michigan water softening education, rebate program
Public Outreach/Education Success Stories in Wisconsin Case studies of successful reduction of water softening in commercial and municipal settings WI Salt Wise Partnership Wisonsin, Midwest, EPA Region 5, State water softening education, rebate program
Technology Capacitive Electronic Water Descaler System Alternative water softener for whole house Yarna Nationwide water softening products, salt free water softening
Technology Pelican NaturSoft Water Softener Alternative Alternative water softener Pentair Nationwide water softening products, salt free water softening
Technology What are the Alternatives to a Water Softener System Alternatives to a salt based water softener Culligan Water Nationwide water softening products, salt free water softening
Technology 8 Water Softener Alternatives Alternatives to a salt based water softener Home Stratosphere Nationwide water softening products, salt free water softening
Public Outreach/Education Water Softeners Options for homeowners to assess and reduce water softening using salt WI Salt Wise Partnership Wisonsin, Midwest, EPA Region 5, State water softening products, salt free water softening, public outreach
Public Outreach/Education The Skinny on Water Softeners Options for homeowners to assess and reduce water softening using salt Minnesota Pollution Control Agency Minnesota water softening products, salt free water softening, public outreach
Public Outreach/Education A Review of Residential Water Softening Overview of status of residential water softeners University of Minnesota Minnesota residential water softeners
Public Outreach/Education Water Softening/Conditioning for Residential Users options for water softening for residential users University of Minnesota Minnesota residential water softeners
Regulatory Variances to Water Quality Standards Guidance on variances for polutants and source reduction measures Wisconsin DNR Wisonsin, Midwest, EPA Region 5, State variance guidance, mercury, chloride, copper, arsenic, phosphorus, economic impacts
Regulatory Water Permit Holders and Chloride Information on chloride and wastewater facilities and storm water Minnesota PCA Minnesota chloride, municipal wastewater facilities, stormwater drainage
Regulatory Twin Cities Metro Area Chloride TMDL Study on the winter maintenance and residential chloride contamination levels in the Twin City area of Minnesota Minnesota PCA Minnesota chloride, winter maintenance of roads, deicing, water softeners
Regulatory Statewide Chloride Resources Webpage with links to reports and guidance on chloride for Minnesota Minnesota PCA Minnesota chloride, winter maintenance of roads, deicing, water softeners
Regulatory Streamlined Chloride Variance Action Tree Guide for development and implementation of activities to reduce chloride – Minnesota Minnesota PCA Minnesota action tree, chloride, Minnesota, source reduction
Regulatory Strategy for Municipal Chloride Reduction and Minimization Guide for municipalities to inspect and minimize chloride levels Minnesota PCA Minnesota municipalities, chloride, wastewater treatment plant, chloride source inventory, industrial water treatment
Regulatory DNR’s Recommendations for PMPs and SRMs for Arsenic, Chloride, Copper, and Mercury Variances Guidance for writing PMP plans and SRMs for Wisconsin Wisconsin DNR Wisonsin, Midwest, EPA Region 5, state variance guidance, Mercury, Chloride, Copper, Arsenic, Phosphorus,economic impacts
Regulatory Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Chloride 1988 study on water quality criteria for chloride EPA Nationwide chloride, aquatic organisms, water quality criteria
Regulatory State-Specific Water Quality Standards Effective Under the Clean Water Act State, territorial, and tribal water quality standards approved by EPA or in effect for CWA purposes EPA nationwide water quality standards, state water quality standards, tribal water quality standards, EPA
Public Outreach/Education Fact Sheet: Chloride Usage Education and Reduction Program Public education for residential salt use DuPage River Salt Creek Workgroup Illinois, Midwest, Region 5 residential chloride use and alternatives
Public Outreach/Education Outreach Tools Education on recommended salt use WI Salt Wise Partnership Wisonsin, Midwest, EPA Region 5, state residential chloride use, public outreach and guidance
Public Outreach/Education Household Door to Door Talking Points Education on recommended salt use WI Salt Wise Partnership Wisonsin, Midwest, EPA Region 5, state residential chloride use, public outreach and guidance
Public Outreach/Education Proactive Approach to Chloride Reductions Best management practices approach to chlorides for institutional, industrial, and residential settings Village of Paddock Lake, WI Wisonsin, Midwest, EPA Region 5, state institutional chloride use, industrial chloride use, residential chloride use, best management practices
Public Outreach/Education Be Salt Smart at Home Public education for residential salt use Salt Smart Collaborative Illinois, Midwest, Region 5 residential salt application, education and outreach
Public Outreach/Education Fact Sheet: Public Works Directors and Staff Chloride Useage Education and Reduction Program Municipal education for reducing salt useage DuPage River Salt Creek Workgroup Illinois, Midwest, Region 5 winter maintenance workers, municipal salt reduction, deicing
Public Outreach/Education Fact Sheet: Mayors/Managers Chloride Useage Education and Reduction Program Municipal education for reducing salt useage DuPage River Salt Creek Workgroup Illinois, Midwest, Region 5 winter maintenance workers, municipal salt reduction, deicing
Public Outreach/Education Salt Wise Newsletter Residential winter salt use guidance WI Salt Wise Partnership Wisonsin, Midwest, EPA Region 5, state residential chloride use, public outreach and guidance
Public Outreach/Education Fact Sheet: Commercial Operators Chloride Useage Education and Reduction Program Commercial education for reducing salt useage DuPage River Salt Creek Workgroup Illinois, Midwest, Region 5 winter maintenance workers, municipal salt reduction, deicing
Public Outreach/Education Salt Wise Newsletter Residential winter salt use guidance WI Salt Wise Partnership Wisonsin, Midwest, EPA Region 5, State residential chloride use, public outreach and guidance
Public Outreach/Education Resources for Public Road Agencies Links to deicing workshops, best management practices, and outreach materials Salt Smart Collaborative Illinois, Midwest, Region 5 deicing, winter maintenance professionals, best management practices, BMPs
Science Dr. Kristine Stepenuck Laboratoy Link to department and contact information University of Vermont Vermont Vermont, University of Vermont, Kristine Stepenuck
Science Dr. Hintz Ecology Laboratory Website for Hintz Ecology Lab – University of Toledo Hintz Ecology Lab Ohio University of Toledo, Hintz Ecology Lab, Ohio
Science Dr. Hilary Dugan Laboratory Website of Dugan Lab, Center for Limnology University of Wisconsin Wisonsin, Midwest, EPA Region 5, state University of Wisconsin, Dugan Lab, aquatic processes in lakes, Hilary Dugan
Science Dr. John S. Gulliver Laboratory Link to Dept of Civil Environmental & Geo-Engineering University of Minnesota Minnesota University of Minnesota, John Gulliver
Science Dr. Sujay Kaushal Laboratory Website for Kaushal Biogeochemisty Laboratory – University of Maryland University of Maryland Maryland University of Maryland, freshwater salinization, chemical cocktails, ions
Public Outreach/Education Winter Salt Watch Information related to reducing salt use Izaak Walton League of America Maryland salt watch pledge, chloride, salt
Regulatory Chapter 29, Sewer Use and Wastewater Treatment Chloride source reduction program City of Waukesha, WI Wisonsin, Midwest, EPA Region 5, State chloride source reduction, discharge regulations
Sources Chloride Contributions from Water Softeners and Other Domestic,
Commercial, Industrial, and Agricultural Sources to Minnesota Waters
2019 study covering chloride contributions from residential, comercial, idustrial and agricultural sources University of Minnesota Minnesota chloride contributions from residential, comercial, idustrial and agricultural sources
Winter Maintenance Statewide Chloride Management Plan Link to managment plan and summary Minnesota PCA Minnesota Minnesota, chloride, municipal, winter maintenance professionals
Sources Alternatives for Addressing Chloride in Wastewater Effluent 2018 guide on treatment options Minnesota PCA Minnesota wastewater, chloride, alternatives for addressing chloride, municipal wastewater treatment
Public Outreach/Education Minnesota Green Corps Website for Green Corps whose goals include environmental protection and preservation as well as training new environmental professionals Minnesota PCA Minnesota training, solid waste, recycling, water quality, water run-off
Public Outreach/Education Chloride Monitoring in Wisconsin Citizen science monitoring in Wisconsin WI Salt Wise Partnership Wisonsin, Midwest, EPA Region 5, state chloride monitoring, salt wise events, summer paddle
Public Outreach/Education The Real Costs of Salt Use for Winter Maintenance in the Twin Cities Metro Area Study on impacts of salt use in the Twin Cities waterways Minnesota PCA Minnesota chloride, winter maintenance, Minnesota
Regulatory Chloride Reduction Model Ordinance Language Chloride reduction model ordinance language Minnesota PCA Minnesota chloride reduction model ordinance
Regulatory Model Ordinances Model facilities plan for snow and ice control DuPage River Salt Creek Workgroup Illinois, Midwest, Region 5 model facilities plan, municipal snow and ice control, winter maintenance professionals
Public Outreach/Education Salt Responsibly – Preserve and Protect New Hampshire’s Freshwater Website resources publlished and managed by the Green Mountain Conservation Group for salt reduction strategies Green Mountain Conservation Group New Hampshire salt responsibly, chloride contamination, salt reduction, road salt, Ossipee watershed, Green Mountain Conservation Group
Public Outreach/Education Salt Reduction Trainings and Salt Accounting System Resources Website resources providing salt application tracking databases for commercial and municipal salt applicators in New Hampshire; training opportunities, resources, and links for salt applicators University of New Hampshire Technology Transfer Center (UNHT2) New Hampshire UNHT2, trainings, salt reduction, New Hampshire Green SnowPro, salt accounting system.
Regulatory Accotink Creek Chloride TMDL A TMDL (the only one in Virginia) that provides wasteload allocations for entities that apply salt; this TMDL report led to the development of a region-wide Salt Management Strategy (SaMS) Virginia Department of Environmental Quality Virginia TMDL, chloride TMDL, Accotink Creek, Northern Virginia, chloride wasteload allocation
Winter Maintenance Eureka County Winter Maintenance & Snow Removal Policy A pdf of Eureka County, Nevada’s Winter Maintenance/Snow Removal Policy dated 12/19/2008 Eureka County, Nevada Commissioners Nevada winter maintenance, Nevada
Regulatory Eureka Charter Township Code of Ordinances Pdf of township ordinances for Eureka Township, NV dated 11/8/2021 Eureka County, Nevada Commissioners Nevada municipal ordinances, Nevada
Technology Saltwise Water Softener Screener Tool Tool for residents to better understand how their use of a water softener impacts chloride concentrations WI Salt Wise Partnership Wisconsin public outreach, water softener
Winter Maintenance MPCA Water Softening Grant With this $250,000 grant, the MPCA sought an organization that will lead the effort within a selected community in need of chloride reduction in partnership with members of the community and local and state experts Minnesota Pollution Control Agency Minnesota grant, Minnesota, chloride reduction, public private partnerships
Winter Maintenance Smart Salting Assessment Tool The SSaT is a free, web-based tool that can be used to assist public and private winter maintenance organizations in determining where opportunities exist to improve practices, make reductions in salt use, and track progress Minnesota Pollution Control Agency Minnesota chloride reduction, winter maintenance, Minnesota, best management practices, BMPs
Science Cheese to the Rescue: Surprising Spray Melts Road Ice The rural county (county seat: Balsam Lake) uses the cheese brine in pre-wetting for snow and ice control Journal of Dairy Science Nationwide brine, dairy, winter maintenance
Sources Stormwater Discharges from Transportation Sources EPA website on stormwater discharges from transportation MS4 permits EPA Nationwide NPDES, MS4, DOT
Technology What is EPA Doing to Support Green Infrastructure? Technical assistance, webinars, informational resources, and outreach to states and communities working to reduce the pollutants in stormwater runoff from roads EPA Nationwide green infrastructure cost evaluation, performance, infrastructure, decision tools, highway
Regulatory Transportation Stormwater Permit Compendium A compendium of excerpted permit language from municipal separate storm sewer system (MS4) permits and other resources that can be used and/or tailored for transportation-specific MS4 permits EPA Nationwide MS$, NPDES, stormwater
Winter Maintenance Strategies to Mitigate the Impacts of Chloride Roadway Deicers on the Natural Environment TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 449 documents the range of methods, tools, and techniques used by transportation agencies to minimize the environmental impact of chloride-based roadway deicers Transportation Research Board – National Cooperation Highway Research Program Nationwide tools, technology, emerging science
Winter Maintenance Environmental Stewardship Practices, Procedures, and Policies for Highway Construction and Maintenance NCHRP 25-25(04)’s compendium of environmental stewardship practices in construction and maintenance, developed from the literature, state transportation agency manuals and procedures, and the contributions of state DOTs and practitioners Transportation Research Board – National Cooperation Highway Research Program Nationwide environmental stewardship, construction, manuals, procedures
Sources Methods for Evaluating Potential Sources of Chloride in Surface Waters and Groundwaters of the Conterminous United States Information about potential sources of chloride, water and solute budgets, and methods for collecting water-quality data to help identify potential sources. USGS Nationwide water quality, monitoring, water supply, water use, policy
Science Toxicological Effects of Chloride Based Deicers in the Natural Environment This report (25-25/TASK 86) documents and presents information on the toxicological impacts of chloride-based deicers to the environment National Cooperation Highway Research Program Nationwide toxilogical impacts
Winter Maintenance Guidelines for the Selection of Snow and Ice Control Materials to Mitigate Environmental Impacts TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 577 explores guidelines for the selection of snow and ice control materials through an evaluation of their cost, performance, and impacts on the environment and infrastructure. Transportation Research Board – National Cooperation Highway Research Program Nationwide cost evaluation, performance, infrastructure, decision tools, highway
Winter Maintenance Highway Deicing: Comparing Salt and Calcium Magnesium Acetate TRB Special Report 235 examines the total cost of salt and calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), including the indirect cost of application and indirect costs to the environment, infrastructure, and motor vehicles Transportation Research Board Nationwide calcium magnesium acetate, costs, highway
Winter Maintenance Road Salt Reduction Certifying winter maintenance professionals in salt reduction practices that improve water quality while protecting public safety New Hampshire Dept of Environmental Services New Hampshire road salt reduction
Winter Maintenance Salt Management Strategy Development The SaMS development phase has completed and the implementation phase is beginning under the leadership of the Northern Virginia Regional Commission (NVRC) Virginia Department of Environmental Quality Virginia salt management strategy
Public Outreach/Education Road Salt Has Become the Acid Rain of Our Time The LGA has identified road salt reduction as being essential to the long-term protection of the Lake’s legendary water quality and has partnered with local municipalities on a science-based, technology-driven initiative that is achieving significant reductions Lake George Association New York Lake George, management, outreach tools, engaging public
Winter Maintenance The Clear Roads Research Program A national research consortium focused on rigorous testing of winter maintenance materials, equipment and methods for use by highway maintenance crews Clear Roads Nationwide roads, highway, maintenance, technology, equipment


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If you notice any broken links or find any resources you think should be included in the Clearinghouse, please use this form to share with us. Please include your name and contact information below in case we need to follow-up.
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